## Mechanical Engineering - Research Publications

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Now showing items 1-12 of 413

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Dispersive stresses in turbulent flow over riblets

(Cambridge University Press, 2021-06-25)

We carry out direct numerical simulations of turbulent flow over riblets, streamwise- aligned grooves that are designed to reduce drag by modifying the near-wall flow. Twenty riblet geometries and sizes are considered, namely symmetric triangular with tip angle, and, asymmetric triangular, blade and trapezoidal. To save on computational cost, simulations are performed using the minimal-channel flow configuration. With this unprecedented breadth of high-fidelity flow data near the wall, we are able to obtain more general insights into the flow physics of riblets. As observed by García-Mayoral & Jiménez (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 678, 2011, pp. 317-347), we confirm that the drag-change curves of all the present groove geometries better collapse when reported with the viscous-scaled square root of the groove area, rather than the riblet spacing. Using a two-dimensional generalization of the Fukagata-Iwamoto-Kasagi identity in difference form we isolate the different drag-change contributions. We show that the drag increase associated with dispersive stresses carried by secondary flows can be as important as the one associated with the turbulent stresses and the pre-eminence of dispersive stresses can be estimated by the groove width at the riblet mean height.

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Nano/ultrafine grained immiscible Fe-Cu alloy with ultrahigh strength produced by selective laser melting

(TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2021-06-03)

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Biocomposites Produced from Hardwood Particles by Equal Channel Angular Pressing: Effects of Pre-Treatment

(MDPI, 2020-12-01)

<jats:p>The benefit of using a combination of alkali pre-treatment and ball milling in processing hardwood particles into biocomposites via equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) was demonstrated. The penetration of bonding additives (polyethyleneimine and tannic acid) into hardwood structures was enhanced by the pre-treatment, resulting in plasticization and cross-linking derived from the additives during the particle processing. A significant improvement in the biocomposites’ mechanical properties was obtained, reaching flexural strength of 28–29 MPa and flexural modulus of 3650 MPa, comparable to those displayed by commercial wood fiberboard using thermosetting resins as the binding agent. This adds to the promise of developing biocomposites from industrial or agricultural waste through the simple and efficient ECAP technology in conjunction with common pre-treatment methodologies for wood particles.</jats:p>

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Sensitivity analysis of FDA's benchmark nozzle regarding in vitro imperfections-Do we need asymmetric CFD benchmarks?

(Walter de Gruyter GmbH, 2020-09-01)

<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>Modern technologies and methods such as computer simulation, so-called in silico methods, foster the development of medical devices. For accelerating the uptake of computer simulations and to increase credibility and reliability the U.S. Food and Drug Administration organized an inter-laboratory round robin study of a generic nozzle geometry. In preparation of own bench testing experiment using Particle Image Velocimetry, a custom made silicone nozzle was manufactured. By using in silico computational fluid dynamics method the influence of in vitro imperfections, such as inflow variations and geometrical deviations, on the flow field were evaluated. Based on literature the throat Reynolds number was varied Rethroat = 500 ± 50. It could be shown that the flow field errors resulted from variations of inlet conditions can be largely eliminated by normalizing if the Reynolds number is known. Furthermore, a symmetric imperfection of the silicone model within manufacturing tolerance does not affect the flow as much as an asymmetric failure such as an unintended curvature of the nozzle. In brief, we can conclude that geometrical imperfection of the reference experiment should be considered accordingly to in silico modelling. The question arises, if an asymmetric benchmark for biofluid analysis needs to be established. An eccentric nozzle benchmark could be a suitable case and will be further investigated.</jats:p>

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Controlling DC microgrids in communities, buildings and data centers

(Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2020-06-01)

Microgrid technology is poised to transform the electricity industry. In the context of commercial/domestic buildings and data centers, where most loads are native direct current, DC microgrids are in fact a natural choice. Voltage stability and current/power-sharing between sources within a DC microgrid have been studied extensively in recent years. DC voltage droop control is known to have its drawbacks in that current or power-sharing is relatively poor. To eliminate this drawback, some have proposed to add a communication-based consensus control in addition to the primary voltage droop control loop. The current sharing performance is improved, however, the voltage deviation inherent in droop control requires a further, slower control to achieve voltage quality control. To overcome this complication, and reduction in response time, a low latency communication-based control technique that achieves proportional current sharing without significant voltage deviations is proposed in this work. The stability of the proposed control technique is compared to state-of-the-art using eigenvalue and transient analyses. The negative impact of communication delays on proposed control is discussed in detail.

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Short communication: Multiscalar roughness length decomposition in fluvial systems using a transform-roughness correlation (TRC) approach

(Copernicus GmbH, 2020-12-09)

<jats:p>Abstract. In natural open-channel flows over complex surfaces, a wide range of superimposed roughness elements may contribute to flow resistance. Gravel-bed rivers present a particularly interesting example of this kind of multiscalar flow resistance problem, as both individual grains and bedforms may contribute to the roughness length. In this paper, we propose a novel method of estimating the relative contribution of different physical scales of in-channel topography to the total roughness length, using a transform-roughness correlation (TRC) approach. The technique, which uses a longitudinal profile, consists of (1) a wavelet transform which decomposes the surface into roughness elements occurring at different wavelengths and (2) a “roughness correlation” that estimates the roughness length (ks) associated with each wavelength based on its geometry alone. When applied to original and published laboratory experiments with a range of channel morphologies, the roughness correlation estimates the total ks to approximately a factor of 2 of measured values but may perform poorly in very steep channels with low relative submergence. The TRC approach provides novel and detailed information regarding the interaction between surface topography and fluid dynamics that may contribute to advances in hydraulics, bedload transport, and channel morphodynamics.</jats:p>

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Roles of Shear and Convection in Driving Mixing in the Ocean

(American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2021-02-16)

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The Sensitivity of the Antarctic Ice Sheet to a Changing Climate: Past, Present, and Future

(AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2020-12-01)

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Critical success factors-based taxonomy for Lean Public Management: a systematic review

(FapUNIFESP (SciELO), 2020-01-01)

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Simulation-based analysis of lean practices implementation on the supply chain of a public hospital

(FapUNIFESP (SciELO), 2020-01-01)

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Two Dimensional Analysis of Hybrid Spectral/Finite Difference Schemes for Linearized Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations

(SPRINGER/PLENUM PUBLISHERS, 2021-03-18)

<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>This study seeks to compare different combinations of spatial dicretization methods under a coupled spatial temporal framework in two dimensional wavenumber space. The aim is to understand the effect of dispersion and dissipation on both the convection and diffusion terms found in the two dimensional linearized compressible Navier–Stokes Equations (LCNSE) when a hybrid finite difference/Fourier spectral scheme is used in the <jats:italic>x</jats:italic> and <jats:italic>y</jats:italic> directions. In two dimensional wavespace, the spectral resolution becomes a function of both the wavenumber and the wave propagation angle, the orientation of the wave front with respect to the grid. At sufficiently low CFL number where temporal discretization effects can be neglected, we show that a hybrid finite difference/Fourier spectral schemes is more accurate than a full finite difference method for the two dimensional advection equation, but that this is not so in the case of the LCNSE. Group velocities, phase velocities as well as numerical amplification factor were used to quantify the numerical anisotropy of the dispersion and dissipation properties. Unlike the advection equation, the dispersion relation representing the acoustic modes of the LCNSE contains an acoustic terms in addition to its advection and viscous terms. This makes the group velocity in each spatial direction a function of the wavenumber in both spatial directions. This can lead to conditions for which a hybrid Fourier spectral/finite difference method can become less or more accurate than a full finite difference method. To better understand the comparison of the dispersion properties between a hybrid and full FD scheme, the integrated sum of the error between the numerical group velocity <jats:inline-formula><jats:alternatives><jats:tex-math>$$V^{*}_{grp,full}$$</jats:tex-math><mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
<mml:msubsup>
<mml:mi>V</mml:mi>
<mml:mrow>
<mml:mi>g</mml:mi>
<mml:mi>r</mml:mi>
<mml:mi>p</mml:mi>
<mml:mo>,</mml:mo>
<mml:mi>f</mml:mi>
<mml:mi>u</mml:mi>
<mml:mi>l</mml:mi>
<mml:mi>l</mml:mi>
</mml:mrow>
<mml:mrow>
<mml:mrow />
<mml:mo>∗</mml:mo>
</mml:mrow>
</mml:msubsup>
</mml:math></jats:alternatives></jats:inline-formula> and the exact solution across all wavenumbers for a range of wave propagation angle is examined. In the comparison between a hybrid and full FD discretization schemes, the fourth order central (CDS4), fourth order dispersion relation preserving (DRP4) and sixth order central compact (CCOM6) schemes share the same characteristics. At low wave propagation angle, the integrated errors of the full FD and hybrid discretization schemes remain the same. At intermediate wave propagation angle, the integrated error of the full FD schemes become smaller than that of the hybrid scheme. At large wave propagation angle, the integrated error of the full FD schemes diverges while the integrated error of the hybrid discretization schemes converge to zero. At high reduced wavenumber and sufficiently low CFL number where temporal discretization error can be neglected, it was found that the numerical dissipation of the viscous term based on the CDS4, DRP4, CCOM6 and isotropy optimized CDS4 schemes (<jats:inline-formula><jats:alternatives><jats:tex-math>$$\hbox {CDS4}_{{opt}}$$</jats:tex-math><mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
<mml:msub>
<mml:mtext>CDS4</mml:mtext>
<mml:mrow>
<mml:mi>opt</mml:mi>
</mml:mrow>
</mml:msub>
</mml:math></jats:alternatives></jats:inline-formula>) schemes was lower than the actual physical dissipation, which is only a function of the cell Reynolds number. The wave propagation angle at which the numerical dissipation of the viscous term approaches its maximum occurs at <jats:inline-formula><jats:alternatives><jats:tex-math>$$\pi /4$$</jats:tex-math><mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
<mml:mrow>
<mml:mi>π</mml:mi>
<mml:mo>/</mml:mo>
<mml:mn>4</mml:mn>
</mml:mrow>
</mml:math></jats:alternatives></jats:inline-formula> for the CDS4, DRP4, CCOM6 and <jats:inline-formula><jats:alternatives><jats:tex-math>$$\hbox {CDS4}_{{opt}}$$</jats:tex-math><mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML">
<mml:msub>
<mml:mtext>CDS4</mml:mtext>
<mml:mrow>
<mml:mi>opt</mml:mi>
</mml:mrow>
</mml:msub>
</mml:math></jats:alternatives></jats:inline-formula> schemes.</jats:p>

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Designing lean value streams in the fourth industrial revolution era: proposition of technology-integrated guidelines

(Taylor & Francis, 2020-08-17)

Despite the envisioned interrelations, the way Industry 4.0 (I4.0) technologies can influence the design and implementation of lean value streams is still unknown and little empirical evidence is found in the literature. This article aims at proposing guidelines integrated with I4.0 technologies for designing lean value streams. We gathered experts’ opinions regarding the relationship between guidelines for designing a lean value stream and I4.0 technologies. The identification of the most important relationships provided arguments for the proposition of enhanced guidelines for designing lean value streams within the Fourth Industrial Revolution context. The integration of I4.0 technologies into the guidelines for designing a lean value stream raises a distinct approach that benefits from the simplicity and efficiency of Lean Production with ease and agility of the technologies typical of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Such technology-integrated guidelines may allow overcoming existing barriers while lead companies to superior performance results.