Electrical and Electronic Engineering - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 753
Intelligent Reference Curation for Visual Place Recognition via Bayesian Selective Fusion
(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2020)
A key challenge in visual place recognition (VPR) is recognizing places despite drastic visual appearance changes due to factors such as time of day, season, weather or lighting conditions. Numerous approaches based on deep-learnt image descriptors, sequence matching, domain translation, and probabilistic localization have had success in addressing this challenge, but most rely on the availability of carefully curated representative reference images of the possible places. In this paper, we propose a novel approach, dubbed Bayesian Selective Fusion, for actively selecting and fusing informative reference images to determine the best place match for a given query image. The selective element of our approach avoids the counterproductive fusion of every reference image and enables the dynamic selection of informative reference images in environments with changing visual conditions (such as indoors with flickering lights, outdoors during sunshowers or over the day-night cycle). The probabilistic element of our approach provides a means of fusing multiple reference images that accounts for their varying uncertainty via a novel training-free likelihood function for VPR. On difficult query images from two benchmark datasets, we demonstrate that our approach matches and exceeds the performance of several alternative fusion approaches along with state-of-the-art techniques that are provided with prior (unfair) knowledge of the best reference images. Our approach is well suited for longterm robot autonomy where dynamic visual environments are commonplace since it is training-free, descriptor-agnostic, and complements existing techniques such as sequence matching.
Pathway-wide association study identifies five shared pathways associated with schizophrenia in three ancestral distinct populations
Genome-wide association studies have confirmed the polygenic nature of schizophrenia and suggest that there are hundreds or thousands of alleles associated with increased liability for the disorder. However, the generalizability of any one allelic marker of liability is remarkably low and has bred the notion that schizophrenia may be better conceptualized as a pathway(s) disorder. Here, we empirically tested this notion by conducting a pathway-wide association study (PWAS) encompassing 255 experimentally validated Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways among 5033 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 5332 unrelated healthy controls across three distinct ethnic populations; European-American (EA), African-American (AA) and Han Chinese (CH). We identified 103, 74 and 87 pathways associated with schizophrenia liability in the EA, CH and AA populations, respectively. About half of these pathways were uniquely associated with schizophrenia liability in each of the three populations. Five pathways (serotonergic synapse, ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, hedgehog signaling, adipocytokine signaling and renin secretion) were shared across all three populations and the single-nucleotide polymorphism sets representing these five pathways were enriched for single-nucleotide polymorphisms with regulatory function. Our findings provide empirical support for schizophrenia as a pathway disorder and suggest schizophrenia is not only a polygenic but likely also a poly-pathway disorder characterized by both genetic and pathway heterogeneity.
Association of Diabetes Related Complications with Heart Rate Variability among a Diabetic Population in the UAE
(PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2017-01-20)
Microvascular, macrovascular and neurological complications are the key causes of morbidity and mortality among type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the alterations of cardiac autonomic function of diabetic patients in relation to three types of diabetes-related complications. ECG recordings were collected and analyzed from 169 T2DM patients in supine position who were diagnosed with nephropathy (n = 55), peripheral neuropathy (n = 64) and retinopathy (n = 106) at two hospitals in the UAE. Comparison between combinations of patients with complications and a control diabetic group (CONT) with no complication (n = 34) was performed using time, frequency and multi-lag entropy measures of heart rate variability (HRV). The results show that these measures decreased significantly (p<0.05) depending on the presence and type of diabetic complications. Entropy, (median, 1st- 3rd interquartile range) for the group combining all complications (1.74,1.37-2.09) was significantly lower than the corresponding values for the CONT group (1.77, 1.39-2.24) with lag-1 for sequential beat-to-beat changes. Odds ratios (OR) from the entropy analysis further demonstrated a significantly higher association with the combination of retinopathy and peripheral neuropathy versus CONT (OR: 1.42 at lag 8) and an even OR for the combination of retinopathy and nephropathy (OR: 2.46 at lag 8) compared to the other groups with complications. Also, the OR of low frequency power to high frequency power ratio (LF/HF) showed a higher association with these diabetic-related complications compared to CONT, especially for the patient group combining all complications (OR: 4.92). This study confirms that the type of microvascular or peripheral neuropathy complication present in T2DM patients have different effects on heart rate entropy, implying disorders of multi-organ connectivity are directly associated with autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Clinical practice may benefit from including multi-lag entropy for cardiac rhythm analysis in conjunction with traditional screening methods in patients with diabetic complications to ensure better preventive and treatment outcomes in the Emirati Arab population.
A Silk Fibroin Bio-Transient Solution Processable Memristor
(NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2017-11-07)
Today's electronic devices are fabricated using highly toxic materials and processes which limits their applications in environmental sensing applications and mandates complex encapsulation methods in biological and medical applications. This paper proposes a fully resorbable high density bio-compatible and environmentally friendly solution processable memristive crossbar arrays using silk fibroin protein which demonstrated bipolar resistive switching ratio of 104 and possesses programmable device lifetime characteristics before the device gracefully bio-degrades, minimizing impact to environment or to the implanted host. Lactate dehydrogenase assays revealed no cytotoxicity on direct exposure to the fabricated device and support their environmentally friendly and biocompatible claims. Moreover, the correlation between the oxidation state of the cations and their tendency in forming conductive filaments with respect to different active electrode materials has been investigated. The experimental results and the numerical model based on electro-thermal effect shows a tight correspondence in predicting the memristive switching process with various combinations of electrodes which provides insight into the morphological changes of conductive filaments in the silk fibroin films.
Stability, Consistency and Performance of Distribution Entropy in Analysing Short Length Heart Rate Variability (HRV) Signal
(FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2017-09-20)
Distribution entropy (DistEn) is a recently developed measure of complexity that is used to analyse heart rate variability (HRV) data. Its calculation requires two input parameters-the embedding dimension m, and the number of bins M which replaces the tolerance parameter r that is used by the existing approximation entropy (ApEn) and sample entropy (SampEn) measures. The performance of DistEn can also be affected by the data length N. In our previous studies, we have analyzed stability and performance of DistEn with respect to one parameter (m or M) or combination of two parameters (N and M). However, impact of varying all the three input parameters on DistEn is not yet studied. Since DistEn is predominantly aimed at analysing short length heart rate variability (HRV) signal, it is important to comprehensively study the stability, consistency and performance of the measure using multiple case studies. In this study, we examined the impact of changing input parameters on DistEn for synthetic and physiological signals. We also compared the variations of DistEn and performance in distinguishing physiological (Elderly from Young) and pathological (Healthy from Arrhythmia) conditions with ApEn and SampEn. The results showed that DistEn values are minimally affected by the variations of input parameters compared to ApEn and SampEn. DistEn also showed the most consistent and the best performance in differentiating physiological and pathological conditions with various of input parameters among reported complexity measures. In conclusion, DistEn is found to be the best measure for analysing short length HRV time series.
Fano resonance with high local field enhancement under azimuthally polarized excitation
(NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2017-04-21)
Being an enabling technology for applications such as ultrasensitive biosensing and surface enhanced spectroscopy, enormous research interests have been focused on further boosting the local field enhancement at Fano resonance. Here, we demonstrate a plasmonic Fano resonance resulting from the interference between a narrow magnetic dipole mode and a broad electric dipole mode in a split-ring resonator (SRR) coupled to a nanoarc structure. Strikingly, when subjected to an azimuthally polarized beam (APB) excitation, the intensity enhancement becomes more than 60 times larger than that for a linearly polarized beam (LPB). We attribute this intensity enhancement to the improved conversion efficiency between the excitation and magnetic dipole mode along with improved near-field coupling. The APB excited Fano structure is further used as a nanoruler and beam misalignment sensor, due to the high sensitivity of intensity enhancement and scattering spectra to structure irregularities and excitation beam misalignment. Interestingly, we find that, regardless of the presence of structural translations, the proposed structure still maintains over 60 times better intensity enhancement under APB excitation compared to LPB excitation. Moreover, even if the APB excitation is somewhat misaligned, our Fano structure still manages to give a larger intensity enhancement than its counterpart excited by LPB.
Reaching Agreement in Quantum Hybrid Networks
(Nature Publishing Group, 2017-07-20)
We consider a basic quantum hybrid network model consisting of a number of nodes each holding a qubit, for which the aim is to drive the network to a consensus in the sense that all qubits reach a common state. Projective measurements are applied serving as control means, and the measurement results are exchanged among the nodes via classical communication channels. In this way the quantum-opeartion/classical-communication nature of hybrid quantum networks is captured, although coherent states and joint operations are not taken into consideration in order to facilitate a clear and explicit analysis. We show how to carry out centralized optimal path planning for this network with all-to-all classical communications, in which case the problem becomes a stochastic optimal control problem with a continuous action space. To overcome the computation and communication obstacles facing the centralized solutions, we also develop a distributed Pairwise Qubit Projection (PQP) algorithm, where pairs of nodes meet at a given time and respectively perform measurements at their geometric average. We show that the qubit states are driven to a consensus almost surely along the proposed PQP algorithm, and that the expected qubit density operators converge to the average of the network’s initial values.
Dynamics of Ebola epidemics in West Africa 2014.
(F1000 Research Ltd, 2014)
This paper investigates the dynamics of Ebola virus transmission in West Africa during 2014. The reproduction numbers for the total period of epidemic and for different consequent time intervals are estimated based on a simple linear model. It contains one major parameter - the average infectious period that defines the dynamics of epidemics. Numerical implementations are carried out on data collected from three countries Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia as well as the total data collected worldwide. Predictions are provided by considering different scenarios involving the average times of infectiousness for the next few months and the end of the current epidemic is estimated according to each scenario.
WDR62 Regulates Early Neural and Glial Progenitor Specification of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells
(HINDAWI LTD, 2017-01-01)
Mutations in WD40-repeat protein 62 (WDR62) are commonly associated with primary microcephaly and other developmental cortical malformations. We used human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) to examine WDR62 function during human neural differentiation and model early stages of human corticogenesis. Neurospheres lacking WDR62 expression showed decreased expression of intermediate progenitor marker, TBR2, and also glial marker, S100β. In contrast, inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signalling during hPSC neural differentiation induced upregulation of WDR62 with a corresponding increase in neural and glial progenitor markers, PAX6 and EAAT1, respectively. These findings may signify a role of WDR62 in specifying intermediate neural and glial progenitors during human pluripotent stem cell differentiation.
Graphene foam as a biocompatible scaffold for culturing human neurons
(ROYAL SOC, 2018-03-01)
In this study, we explore the use of electrically active graphene foam as a scaffold for the culture of human-derived neurons. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived cortical neurons fated as either glutamatergic or GABAergic neuronal phenotypes were cultured on graphene foam. We show that graphene foam is biocompatible for the culture of human neurons, capable of supporting cell viability and differentiation of hESC-derived cortical neurons. Based on the findings, we propose that graphene foam represents a suitable scaffold for engineering neuronal tissue and warrants further investigation as a model for understanding neuronal maturation, function and circuit formation.
Tailoring the thermal and electrical transport properties of graphene films by grain size engineering
(NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2017-02-16)
Understanding the influence of grain boundaries (GBs) on the electrical and thermal transport properties of graphene films is essentially important for electronic, optoelectronic and thermoelectric applications. Here we report a segregation-adsorption chemical vapour deposition method to grow well-stitched high-quality monolayer graphene films with a tunable uniform grain size from ∼200 nm to ∼1 μm, by using a Pt substrate with medium carbon solubility, which enables the determination of the scaling laws of thermal and electrical conductivities as a function of grain size. We found that the thermal conductivity of graphene films dramatically decreases with decreasing grain size by a small thermal boundary conductance of ∼3.8 × 109 W m-2 K-1, while the electrical conductivity slowly decreases with an extraordinarily small GB transport gap of ∼0.01 eV and resistivity of ∼0.3 kΩ μm. Moreover, the changes in both the thermal and electrical conductivities with grain size change are greater than those of typical semiconducting thermoelectric materials.
Self-Organized Nanostructure Modified Microelectrode for Sensitive Electrochemical Glutamate Detection in Stem Cells-Derived Brain Organoids
Neurons release neurotransmitters such as glutamate to communicate with each other and to coordinate brain functioning. As increased glutamate release is indicative of neuronal maturation and activity, a system that can measure glutamate levels over time within the same tissue and/or culture system is highly advantageous for neurodevelopmental investigation. To address such challenges, we develop for the first time a convenient method to realize functionalized borosilicate glass capillaries with nanostructured texture as an electrochemical biosensor to detect glutamate release from cerebral organoids generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) that mimic various brain regions. The biosensor shows a clear catalytic activity toward the oxidation of glutamate with a sensitivity of 93 ± 9.5 nA·µM-1·cm-2. It was found that the enzyme-modified microelectrodes can detect glutamate in a wide linear range from 5 µM to 0.5 mM with a limit of detection (LOD) down to 5.6 ± 0.2 µM. Measurements were performed within the organoids at different time points and consistent results were obtained. This data demonstrates the reliability of the biosensor as well as its usefulness in measuring glutamate levels across time within the same culture system.