Bio21 - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 168
NLRP1 restricts butyrate producing commensals to exacerbate inflammatory bowel disease
(NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2018-09-13)
Anti-microbial signaling pathways are normally triggered by innate immune receptors when detecting pathogenic microbes to provide protective immunity. Here we show that the inflammasome sensor Nlrp1 aggravates DSS-induced experimental mouse colitis by limiting beneficial, butyrate-producing Clostridiales in the gut. The colitis-protective effects of Nlrp1 deficiency are thus reversed by vancomycin treatment, but recapitulated with butyrate supplementation in wild-type mice. Moreover, an activating mutation in Nlrp1a increases IL-18 and IFNγ production, and decreases colonic butyrate to exacerbate colitis. We also show that, in patients with ulcerative colitis, increased NLRP1 in inflamed regions of the colon is associated with increased IFN-γ. In this context, NLRP1, IL-18 or IFN-γ expression negatively correlates with the abundance of Clostridiales in human rectal mucosal biopsies. Our data identify the NLRP1 inflammasome to be a key negative regulator of protective, butyrate-producing commensals, which therefore promotes inflammatory bowel disease.
Lipidomics Reveals a Tissue-Specific Fingerprint
(FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2018-08-28)
In biological systems lipids generate membranes and have a key role in cell signaling and energy storage. Therefore, there is a wide diversity of molecular lipid expressed at the compositional level in cell membranes and organelles, as well as in tissues, whose lipid distribution remains unclear. Here, we report a mass spectrometry study of lipid abundance across 7 rat tissues, detecting and quantifying 652 lipid molecular species from the glycerolipid, glycerophospholipid, fatty acyl, sphingolipid, sterol lipid and prenol lipid categories. Our results demonstrate that every tissue analyzed presents a specific lipid distribution and concentration. Thus, glycerophospholipids are the most abundant tissue lipid, they share a similar tissue distribution but differ in particular lipid species between tissues. Sphingolipids are more concentrated in the renal cortex and sterol lipids can be found mainly in both liver and kidney. Both types of white adipose tissue, visceral and subcutaneous, are rich in glycerolipids but differing the amount. Acylcarnitines are mainly in the skeletal muscle, gluteus and soleus, while heart presents higher levels of ubiquinone than other tissues. The present study demonstrates the existence of a rat tissue-specific fingerprint.
Viral regulation of host cell biology by hijacking of the nucleolar DNA-damage response
(NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2018-08-03)
Recent studies indicate that nucleoli play critical roles in the DNA-damage response (DDR) via interaction of DDR machinery including NBS1 with nucleolar Treacle protein, a key mediator of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription and processing. Here, using proteomics, confocal and single molecule super-resolution imaging, and infection under biosafety level-4 containment, we show that this nucleolar DDR pathway is targeted by infectious pathogens. We find that the matrix proteins of Hendra virus and Nipah virus, highly pathogenic viruses of the Henipavirus genus in the order Mononegavirales, interact with Treacle and inhibit its function, thereby silencing rRNA biogenesis, consistent with mimicking NBS1-Treacle interaction during a DDR. Furthermore, inhibition of Treacle expression/function enhances henipavirus production. These data identify a mechanism for viral modulation of host cells by appropriating the nucleolar DDR and represent, to our knowledge, the first direct intranucleolar function for proteins of any mononegavirus.
Complement-mediated Damage to the Glycocalyx Plays a Role in Renal Ischemia-reperfusion Injury in Mice
(LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2019-04-01)
Background: Complement activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury (IRI), but whether this involves damage to the vasculoprotective endothelial glycocalyx is not clear. We investigated the impact of complement activation on glycocalyx integrity and renal dysfunction in a mouse model of renal IRI. Methods: Right nephrectomized male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 22 minutes left renal ischemia and sacrificed 24 hours after reperfusion to analyze renal function, complement activation, glycocalyx damage, endothelial cell activation, inflammation, and infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages. Results: Ischemia-reperfusion induced severe renal injury, manifested by significantly increased serum creatinine and urea, complement activation and deposition, loss of glycocalyx, endothelial activation, inflammation, and innate cell infiltration. Treatment with the anti-C5 antibody BB5.1 protected against IRI as indicated by significantly lower serum creatinine (P = 0.04) and urea (P = 0.003), tissue C3b/c and C9 deposition (both P = 0.004), plasma C3b (P = 0.001) and C5a (P = 0.006), endothelial vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression (P = 0.003), glycocalyx shedding (tissue heparan sulfate [P = 0.001], plasma syndecan-1 [P = 0.007], and hyaluronan [P = 0.02]), inflammation (high mobility group box-1 [P = 0.0003]), and tissue neutrophil (P = 0.0009) and macrophage (P = 0.004) infiltration. Conclusions: Together, our data confirm that the terminal pathway of complement activation plays a key role in renal IRI and demonstrate that the mechanism of injury involves shedding of the glycocalyx.
A potential association between IL-3 and type I and III interferons in systemic lupus erythematosus
Objectives: Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), through the production of type 1 interferons (IFNs) and other cytokines, are major contributors to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis. IL-3 promotes pDC survival, but its role in SLE is not well characterised. This study investigated serum IL-3 and IFN levels, and a whole blood 'IL-3 gene signature', in human SLE. Methods: Serum cytokine levels were measured by ELISA in n = 42 SLE patients, and n = 44 healthy donors. IL-3-regulated genes were determined by RNASeq of healthy donor whole blood cells (WBCs) stimulated in vitro with IL-3 for 6 or 24 h. Whole blood cell RNASeq analysis was undertaken in a separate cohort of n = 31 SLE patients, and n = 28 healthy donors. Results: Serum IL-3 levels correlated with IFNα (r = 0.612, 95% CI 0.455-0.733, P < 0.001) and type III IFN (r = 0.585, 95% CI 0.406-0.720, P < 0.0001). IL-3 stimulation of WBC in vitro altered 794 genes (-1 ≥ logFC ≥ 1, FDR < 0.05), of which 35 overlapped with genes differentially expressed between SLE and healthy donors. These 35 genes were expressed in 27/31 SLE donors, revealing the presence of an 'IL-3 gene signature'. There was strong correlation between the IL-3 signature and an IFN signature, as determined by hierarchical clustering of the 500 most variable genes in SLE donors (r = 0.939, 95% CI 0.898-0.964, P < 0.0001). Conclusion: A dual IL-3/IFN gene signature is a feature of SLE. An association between IL-3 and IFN raises the possibility that dual blockade of IL-3 and IFN may be especially useful for SLE patients with this dual cytokine gene signature.
Circadian and wake-dependent changes in human plasma polar metabolites during prolonged wakefulness: A preliminary analysis
(NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-03-14)
Establishing circadian and wake-dependent changes in the human metabolome are critical for understanding and treating human diseases due to circadian misalignment or extended wake. Here, we assessed endogenous circadian rhythms and wake-dependent changes in plasma metabolites in 13 participants (4 females) studied during 40-hours of wakefulness. Four-hourly plasma samples were analyzed by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC)-LC-MS for 1,740 metabolite signals. Group-averaged (relative to DLMO) and individual participant metabolite profiles were fitted with a combined cosinor and linear regression model. In group-level analyses, 22% of metabolites were rhythmic and 8% were linear, whereas in individual-level analyses, 14% of profiles were rhythmic and 4% were linear. We observed metabolites that were significant at the group-level but not significant in a single individual, and metabolites that were significant in approximately half of individuals but not group-significant. Of the group-rhythmic and group-linear metabolites, only 7% and 12% were also significantly rhythmic or linear, respectively, in ≥50% of participants. Owing to large inter-individual variation in rhythm timing and the magnitude and direction of linear change, acrophase and slope estimates also differed between group- and individual-level analyses. These preliminary findings have important implications for biomarker development and understanding of sleep and circadian regulation of metabolism.
G-CSFR antagonism reduces neutrophilic inflammation during pneumococcal and influenza respiratory infections without compromising clearance.
(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-11-27)
Excessive neutrophilic inflammation can contribute to the pathogenesis of pneumonia. Whilst anti-inflammatory therapies such as corticosteroids are used to treat excessive inflammation, they do not selectively target neutrophils and may compromise antimicrobial or antiviral defences. In this study, neutrophil trafficking was targeted with a granulocyte-colony stimulating factor receptor monoclonal antibody (G-CSFR mAb) during Streptococcus pneumoniae (serotype 19F) or influenza A virus (IAV, strain HKx31) lung infection in mice. Firstly, we demonstrated that neutrophils are indispensable for the clearance of S. pneumoniae from the airways using an anti-Ly6G monoclonal antibody (1A8 mAb), as the complete inhibition of neutrophil recruitment markedly compromised bacterial clearance. Secondly, we demonstrated that G-CSF transcript lung levels were significantly increased during pneumococcal infection. Prophylactic or therapeutic administration of G-CSFR mAb significantly reduced blood and airway neutrophil numbers by 30-60% without affecting bacterial clearance. Total protein levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid (marker for oedema) was also significantly reduced. G-CSF transcript levels were also increased during IAV lung infection. G-CSFR mAb treatment significantly reduced neutrophil trafficking into BAL compartment by 60% and reduced blood neutrophil numbers to control levels in IAV-infected mice. Peak lung viral levels at day 3 were not altered by G-CSFR therapy, however there was a significant reduction in the detection of IAV in the lungs at the day 7 post-infection phase. In summary, G-CSFR signalling contributes to neutrophil trafficking in response to two common respiratory pathogens. Blocking G-CSFR reduced neutrophil trafficking and oedema without compromising clearance of two pathogens that can cause pneumonia.
Extracellular vesicles containing oncogenic mutant beta-catenin activate Wnt signalling pathway in the recipient cells
(TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2019-12-01)
Mutations in β-catenin, especially at the residues critical for its degradation, render it constitutively active. Here, we show that mutant β-catenin can be transported via extracellular vesicles (EVs) and activate Wnt signalling pathway in the recipient cells. An integrative proteogenomic analysis identified the presence of mutated β-catenin in EVs secreted by colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Follow-up experiments established that EVs released from LIM1215 CRC cells stimulated Wnt signalling pathway in the recipient cells with wild-type β-catenin. SILAC-based quantitative proteomics analysis confirmed the transfer of mutant β-catenin to the nucleus of the recipient cells. In vivo tracking of DiR-labelled EVs in mouse implanted with RKO CRC cells revealed its bio-distribution, confirmed the activation of Wnt signalling pathway in tumour cells and increased the tumour burden. Overall, for the first time, this study reveals that EVs can transfer mutant β-catenin to the recipient cells and promote cancer progression.
E6AP Promotes a Metastatic Phenotype in Prostate Cancer
(CELL PRESS, 2019-12-20)
Although primary prostate cancer is largely curable, progression to metastatic disease is associated with very poor prognosis. E6AP is an E3 ubiquitin ligase and a transcriptional co-factor involved in normal prostate development. E6AP drives prostate cancer when overexpressed. Our study exposed a role for E6AP in the promotion of metastatic phenotype in prostate cells. We revealed that elevated levels of E6AP in primary prostate cancer correlate with regional metastasis and demonstrated that E6AP promotes acquisition of mesenchymal features, migration potential, and ability for anchorage-independent growth. We identified the metastasis suppressor NDRG1 as a target of E6AP and showed it is key in E6AP induction of mesenchymal phenotype. We showed that treatment of prostate cancer cells with pharmacological agents upregulated NDRG1 expression suppressed E6AP-induced cell migration. We propose that the E6AP-NDRG1 axis is an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of E6AP-driven metastatic prostate cancer.
Function of hTim8a in complex IV assembly in neuronal cells provides insight into pathomechanism underlying Mohr-Tranebjaerg syndrome
(ELIFE SCIENCES PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2019-11-04)
Human Tim8a and Tim8b are members of an intermembrane space chaperone network, known as the small TIM family. Mutations in TIMM8A cause a neurodegenerative disease, Mohr-Tranebjærg syndrome (MTS), which is characterised by sensorineural hearing loss, dystonia and blindness. Nothing is known about the function of hTim8a in neuronal cells or how mutation of this protein leads to a neurodegenerative disease. We show that hTim8a is required for the assembly of Complex IV in neurons, which is mediated through a transient interaction with Complex IV assembly factors, in particular the copper chaperone COX17. Complex IV assembly defects resulting from loss of hTim8a leads to oxidative stress and changes to key apoptotic regulators, including cytochrome c, which primes cells for death. Alleviation of oxidative stress with Vitamin E treatment rescues cells from apoptotic vulnerability. We hypothesise that enhanced sensitivity of neuronal cells to apoptosis is the underlying mechanism of MTS.
Metabolite Changes in an Estuarine Annelid Following Sublethal Exposure to a Mixture of Zinc and Boscalid
Environmental pollutants such as heavy metals and fungicides pose a serious threat to waterways worldwide. Toxicological assessment of such contaminants is usually conducted using single compound exposures, as it is challenging to understand the effect of mixtures on biota using standard ecotoxicological methods; whereas complex chemical mixtures are more probable in ecosystems. This study exposed Simplisetiaaequisetis (an estuarine annelid) to sublethal concentrations of a metal (zinc) and a fungicide (boscalid), both singly and as a mixture, for two weeks. Metabolomic analysis via gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to measure the stress response(s) of the organism following exposure. A total of 75 metabolites, including compounds contributing to the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the urea cycle, and a number of other pathways, were identified and quantified. The multiplatform approach identified distinct metabolomic responses to each compound that differed depending on whether the substance was presented singly or as a mixture, indicating a possible antagonistic effect. The study demonstrates that metabolomics is able to elucidate the effects and mode of action of contaminants and can identify possible outcomes faster than standard ecotoxicological endpoints, such as growth and reproduction. Metabolomics therefore has a possible future role in biomonitoring and ecosystem health assessments.
Exosomes containing HIV protein Nef reorganize lipid rafts potentiating inflammatory response in bystander cells
(PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2019-07-01)
HIV infection has a profound effect on "bystander" cells causing metabolic co-morbidities. This may be mediated by exosomes secreted by HIV-infected cells and containing viral factors. Here we show that exosomes containing HIV-1 protein Nef (exNef) are rapidly taken up by macrophages releasing Nef into the cell interior. This caused down-regulation of ABCA1, reduction of cholesterol efflux and sharp elevation of the abundance of lipid rafts through reduced activation of small GTPase Cdc42 and decreased actin polymerization. Changes in rafts led to re-localization of TLR4 and TREM-1 to rafts, phosphorylation of ERK1/2, activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, and increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The effects of exNef on lipid rafts and on inflammation were reversed by overexpression of a constitutively active mutant of Cdc42. Similar effects were observed in macrophages treated with exosomes produced by HIV-infected cells or isolated from plasma of HIV-infected subjects, but not with exosomes from cells and subjects infected with ΔNef-HIV or uninfected subjects. Mice injected with exNef exhibited monocytosis, reduced ABCA1 in macrophages, increased raft abundance in monocytes and augmented inflammation. Thus, Nef-containing exosomes potentiated pro-inflammatory response by inducing changes in cholesterol metabolism and reorganizing lipid rafts. These mechanisms may contribute to HIV-associated metabolic co-morbidities.