Bio21 - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 353
Membrane-Enriched Proteomics Link Ribosome Accumulation and Proteome Reprogramming With Cold Acclimation in Barley Root Meristems
(FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2021-04-30)
Due to their sessile nature, plants rely on root systems to mediate many biotic and abiotic cues. To overcome these challenges, the root proteome is shaped to specific responses. Proteome-wide reprogramming events are magnified in meristems due to their active protein production. Using meristems as a test system, here, we study the major rewiring that plants undergo during cold acclimation. We performed tandem mass tag-based bottom-up quantitative proteomics of two consecutive segments of barley seminal root apexes subjected to suboptimal temperatures. After comparing changes in total and ribosomal protein (RP) fraction-enriched contents with shifts in individual protein abundances, we report ribosome accumulation accompanied by an intricate translational reprogramming in the distal apex zone. Reprogramming ranges from increases in ribosome biogenesis to protein folding factors and suggests roles for cold-specific RP paralogs. Ribosome biogenesis is the largest cellular investment; thus, the vast accumulation of ribosomes and specific translation-related proteins during cold acclimation could imply a divergent ribosomal population that would lead to a proteome shift across the root. Consequently, beyond the translational reprogramming, we report a proteome rewiring. First, triggered protein accumulation includes spliceosome activity in the root tip and a ubiquitous upregulation of glutathione production and S-glutathionylation (S-GSH) assemblage machineries in both root zones. Second, triggered protein depletion includes intrinsically enriched proteins in the tip-adjacent zone, which comprise the plant immune system. In summary, ribosome and translation-related protein accumulation happens concomitantly to a proteome reprogramming in barley root meristems during cold acclimation. The cold-accumulated proteome is functionally implicated in feedbacking transcript to protein translation at both ends and could guide cold acclimation.
The TIM22 complex mediates the import of sideroflexins and is required for efficient mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism
(AMER SOC CELL BIOLOGY, 2021-03-15)
Acylglycerol kinase (AGK) is a mitochondrial lipid kinase that contributes to protein biogenesis as a subunit of the TIM22 complex at the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mutations in AGK cause Sengers syndrome, an autosomal recessive condition characterized by congenital cataracts, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, and lactic acidosis. We mapped the proteomic changes in Sengers patient fibroblasts and AGKKO cell lines to understand the effects of AGK dysfunction on mitochondria. This uncovered down-regulation of a number of proteins at the inner mitochondrial membrane, including many SLC25 carrier family proteins, which are predicted substrates of the complex. We also observed down-regulation of SFXN proteins, which contain five transmembrane domains, and show that they represent a novel class of TIM22 complex substrate. Perturbed biogenesis of SFXN proteins in cells lacking AGK reduces the proliferative capabilities of these cells in the absence of exogenous serine, suggesting that dysregulation of one-carbon metabolism is a molecular feature in the biology of Sengers syndrome.
Temporal Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Neuroblastoma Cells Treated with Bovine Milk-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Highlights the Anti-Proliferative Properties of Milk-Derived Extracellular Vesicles
Neuroblastoma (NBL) is a pediatric cancer that accounts for 15% of childhood cancer mortality. Amplification of the oncogene N-Myc occurs in 20% of NBL patients and is considered high risk as it correlates with aggressiveness, treatment resistance and poor prognosis. Even though the treatment strategies have improved in the recent years, the survival rate of high-risk NBL patients remain poor. Hence, it is crucial to explore new therapeutic avenues to sensitise NBL. Recently, bovine milk-derived extracellular vesicles (MEVs) have been proposed to contain anti-cancer properties. However, the impact of MEVs on NBL cells is not understood. In this study, we characterised MEVs using Western blotting, NTA and TEM. Importantly, treatment of NBL cells with MEVs decreased the proliferation and increased the sensitivity of NBL cells to doxorubicin. Temporal label-free quantitative proteomics of NBL cells highlighted the depletion of proteins involved in cell metabolism, cell growth and Wnt signalling upon treatment with MEVs. Furthermore, proteins implicated in cellular senescence and apoptosis were enriched in NBL cells treated with MEVs. For the first time, this study highlights the temporal proteomic profile that occurs in cancer cells upon MEVs treatment.
Novel Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Encoding the Circumsporozoite Protein of Plasmodium falciparum Is Immunogenic and Induces Functional Antibody Responses in Mice
(FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2021-03-17)
RTS,S is the leading malaria vaccine in development, but has demonstrated only moderate protective efficacy in clinical trials. RTS,S is a virus-like particle (VLP) that uses the human hepatitis B virus as scaffold to display the malaria sporozoite antigen, circumsporozoite protein (CSP). Particle formation requires four-fold excess scaffold antigen, and as a result, CSP represents only a small portion of the final vaccine construct. Alternative VLP or nanoparticle platforms that reduce the amount of scaffold antigen and increase the amount of the target CSP antigen present in particles may enhance vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. Here, we describe the production and characterization of a novel VLP that uses the small surface antigen (dS) of duck hepatitis B virus to display CSP. The CSP-dS fusion protein successfully formed VLPs without the need for excess scaffold antigen, and thus CSP represented a larger portion of the vaccine construct. CSP-dS formed large particles approximately 31-74 nm in size and were confirmed to display CSP on the surface. CSP-dS VLPs were highly immunogenic in mice and induced antibodies to multiple regions of CSP, even when administered at a lower vaccine dosage. Vaccine-induced antibodies demonstrated relevant functional activities, including Fc-dependent interactions with complement and Fcγ-receptors, previously identified as important in malaria immunity. Further, vaccine-induced antibodies had similar properties (epitope-specificity and avidity) to monoclonal antibodies that are protective in mouse models. Our novel platform to produce VLPs without excess scaffold protein has wide implications for the future development of vaccines for malaria and other infectious diseases.
A novel soluble complement receptor 1 fragment with enhanced therapeutic potential.
(American Society for Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (ASBMB), 2021-01)
Human complement receptor 1 (HuCR1) is a pivotal regulator of complement activity, acting on all three complement pathways as a membrane-bound receptor of C3b/C4b, C3/C5 convertase decay accelerator, and cofactor for factor I-mediated cleavage of C3b and C4b. In this study, we sought to identify a minimal soluble fragment of HuCR1, which retains the complement regulatory activity of the wildtype protein. To this end, we generated recombinant, soluble, and truncated versions of HuCR1 and compared their ability to inhibit complement activation in vitro using multiple assays. A soluble form of HuCR1, truncated at amino acid 1392 and designated CSL040, was found to be a more potent inhibitor than all other truncation variants tested. CSL040 retained its affinity to both C3b and C4b as well as its cleavage and decay acceleration activity and was found to be stable under a range of buffer conditions. Pharmacokinetic studies in mice demonstrated that the level of sialylation is a major determinant of CSL040 clearance in vivo. CSL040 also showed an improved pharmacokinetic profile compared with the full extracellular domain of HuCR1. The in vivo effects of CSL040 on acute complement-mediated kidney damage were tested in an attenuated passive antiglomerular basement membrane antibody-induced glomerulonephritis model. In this model, CSL040 at 20 and 60 mg/kg significantly attenuated kidney damage at 24 h, with significant reductions in cellular infiltrates and urine albumin, consistent with protection from kidney damage. CSL040 thus represents a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of complement-mediated disorders.
Topical application of human-derived Ig isotypes for the control of acute respiratory infection evaluated in a human CD89-expressing mouse model
(NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-07-01)
Recurrent and persistent airway infections remain prevalent in patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID), despite restoration of serum immunoglobulin levels by intravenous or subcutaneous plasma-derived IgG. We investigated the effectiveness of different human Ig isotype preparations to protect mice against influenza when delivered directly to the respiratory mucosa. Four polyvalent Ig preparations from pooled plasma were compared: IgG, monomeric IgA (mIgA), polymeric IgA-containing IgM (IgAM) and IgAM associated with the secretory component (SIgAM). To evaluate these preparations, a transgenic mouse expressing human FcαRI/CD89 within the myeloid lineage was created. CD89 was expressed on all myeloid cells in the lung and blood except eosinophils, reflecting human CD89 expression. Intranasal administration of IgA-containing preparations was less effective than IgG in reducing pulmonary viral titres after infection of mice with A/California/7/09 (Cal7) or the antigenically distant A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) viruses. However, IgA reduced weight loss and inflammatory mediator expression. Both IgG and IgA protected mice from a lethal dose of PR8 virus and for mIgA, this effect was partially CD89 dependent. Our data support the beneficial effect of topically applied Ig purified from pooled human plasma for controlling circulating and non-circulating influenza virus infections. This may be important for reducing morbidity in PID patients.
Phenotype-specific recombinant haptoglobin polymers co-expressed with C1r-like protein as optimized hemoglobin-binding therapeutics.
(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2018-03-15)
BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have evaluated haptoglobin (Hp) polymers from pooled human plasma as a therapeutic protein to attenuate toxic effects of cell-free hemoglobin (Hb). Proof of concept studies have demonstrated efficacy of Hp in hemolysis associated with transfusion and sickle cell anemia. However, phenotype-specific Hp products might be desirable to exploit phenotype specific activities of Hp 1-1 versus Hp 2-2, offering opportunities for recombinant therapeutics. Prohaptoglobin (proHp) is the primary translation product of the Hp mRNA. ProHp is proteolytically cleaved by complement C1r subcomponent-like protein (C1r-LP) in the endoplasmic reticulum. Two main allelic Hp variants, HP1 and HP2 exist. The larger HP2 is considered to be the ancestor variant of all human Hp alleles and is characterized by an α2-chain, which contains an extra cysteine residue that pairs with additional α-chains generating multimers with molecular weights of 200-900 kDa. The two human HP1 alleles (HP1F and HP1S) differ by a two-amino-acid substitution polymorphism within the α-chain and are derived from HP2 by recurring exon deletions. RESULTS: In the present study, we describe a process for the production of recombinant phenotype specific Hp polymers in mammalian FS293F cells. This approach demonstrates that efficient expression of mature and fully functional protein products requires co-expression of active C1r-LP. The functional characterization of our proteins, which included monomer/polymer distribution, binding affinities as well as NO-sparing and antioxidant functions, demonstrated that C1r-LP-processed recombinant Hp demonstrates equal protective functions as plasma derived Hp in vitro as well as in animal studies. CONCLUSIONS: We present a recombinant production process for fully functional phenotype-specific Hp therapeutics. The proposed process could accelerate the development of Hb scavengers to treat patients with cell-free Hb associated disease states, such as sickle cell disease and other hemolytic conditions.
Exogenous administration of protease-resistant, non-matrix-binding IGFBP-2 inhibits tumour growth in a murine model of breast cancer.
(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2014-06-10)
BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II) signal via the type 1 IGF receptor (IGF-1R) and IGF-II also activates the insulin receptor isoform A (IR-A). Signalling via both receptors promotes tumour growth, survival and metastasis. In some instances IGF-II action via the IR-A also promotes resistance to anti-IGF-1R inhibitors. This study assessed the efficacy of two novel modified IGF-binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) proteins that were designed to sequester both IGFs. The two modified IGFBP-2 proteins were either protease resistant alone or also lacked the ability to bind extracellular matrix (ECM). METHODS: The modified IGFBP-2 proteins were tested in vitro for their abilities to inhibit cancer cell proliferation and in vivo to inhibit MCF-7 breast tumour xenograft growth. RESULTS: Both mutants retained low nanomolar affinity for IGF-I and IGF-II (0.8-2.1-fold lower than IGFBP-2) and inhibited cancer cell proliferation in vitro. However, the combined protease resistant, non-matrix-binding mutant was more effective in inhibiting MCF-7 tumour xenograft growth and led to inhibition of angiogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: By removing protease cleavage and matrix-binding sites, modified IGFBP-2 was effective in inhibiting tumour growth and reducing tumour angiogenesis.
Antibacterial Action of Nanoparticles by Lethal Stretching of Bacterial Cell Membranes
(WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, 2020-12-28)
It is commonly accepted that nanoparticles (NPs) can kill bacteria; however, the mechanism of antimicrobial action remains obscure for large NPs that cannot translocate the bacterial cell wall. It is demonstrated that the increase in membrane tension caused by the adsorption of NPs is responsible for mechanical deformation, leading to cell rupture and death. A biophysical model of the NP–membrane interactions is presented which suggests that adsorbed NPs cause membrane stretching and squeezing. This general phenomenon is demonstrated experimentally using both model membranes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, representing Gram‐positive and Gram‐negative bacteria. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic quasi‐spherical and star‐shaped gold (Au)NPs are synthesized to explore the antibacterial mechanism of non‐translocating AuNPs. Direct observation of nanoparticle‐induced membrane tension and squeezing is demonstrated using a custom‐designed microfluidic device, which relieves contraction of the model membrane surface area and eventual lipid bilayer collapse. Quasi‐spherical nanoparticles exhibit a greater bactericidal action due to a higher interactive affinity, resulting in greater membrane stretching and rupturing, corroborating the theoretical model. Electron microscopy techniques are used to characterize the NP–bacterial‐membrane interactions. This combination of experimental and theoretical results confirm the proposed mechanism of membrane‐tension‐induced (mechanical) killing of bacterial cells by non‐translocating NPs.
Direct Assembly of Vertically Oriented, Gold Nanorod Arrays
(WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, 2021-02-03)
Although many nanoscale materials such as quantum dots and metallic nanocrystals exhibit size dependent optical properties, it has been difficult to incorporate them into optical or electronic devices because there are currently no methods for precise, large‐scale deposition of single nanocrystals. Of particular interest is the need to control the orientation of single nanocrystals since the optical properties are usually strongly anisotropic. Here a method based on electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is reported to precisely assemble vertically oriented, single gold nanorods. It is demonstrated that the orientation of gold nanorods during deposition is controlled by the electric dipole moment induced along the rod by the electric field. Dissipative particle dynamics simulations indicate that the magnitude of this dipole moment is dominated by the polarizability of the solution phase electric double layer around the nanorod. The resulting vertical gold nanorod arrays exhibit reflected colors due to selective excitation of the transverse surface plasmon mode. The EPD method allows assembly of arrays with a density of over one million, visually resolvable, vertical nanorods per square millimeter.
Prednisolone Alters Endometrial Decidual Cells and Affects Decidual-Trophoblast Interactions
(FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2021-04-09)
Poor pregnancy outcomes such as recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) and preeclampsia are associated with impaired decidualization and abnormal trophoblast invasion. Emerging evidence suggests that use of corticosteroids, including prednisolone affects fertility by altering uterine function and may be associated with preeclampsia incidence. In this study, using primary and gestational-age appropriate tissue, we aimed to define the effect of prednisolone on human endometrial stromal fibroblast (hESF) decidualization and determine whether hESF decidualization in the presence of prednisolone would alter hESF regulation of trophoblast function. We found that prednisolone treatment reduced hESF cytokine expression (IL6, IL11, IL18, LIF, and LIFR) but had no effect on hESF expression or secretion of the classic markers of decidualization [prolactin (PRL) and IGFBP1]. Using proteomics we determined that prednisolone altered decidualized hESF protein production, enriching hESF proteins associated with acetylation and mitrochondria. Conditioned media from hESF decidualized in the presence of prednisolone significantly enhanced trophoblast outgrowth and trophoblast mRNA expression of cell motility gene PLCG1 and reduced trophoblast production of PGF. Prednisolone treatment during the menstrual cycle and 1st trimester of pregnancy might alter decidual interactions with other cells, including invasive trophoblast.