School of Social and Political Sciences - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 963
President Trump: 10 reasons to be not afraid
(News Corp, 2017-01-21)
Donald Trump has become President of the most powerful nation in the world. Whether you love or loathe him, his ability to act will be subject to a mixture of constraints. These constraints act on all presidents. In varying combinations, they explain why all presidents of the modern era fail.
As Minneapolis burns, Trump’s presidency is sinking deeper into crisis. And yet, he may still be re-elected
(The Conversation Media Group, 2020-05-31)
Violence has erupted across several US cities after the death of a black man, George Floyd, who was shown on video gasping for breath as a white police officer, Derek Chauvin, knelt on his neck.
The Eye of a Needle: Temporary Prison Leave in Ukraine
(Springer Verlag, 2020)
Although temporary prison leave humanises custodial punishment, offsets its negative effects, and prepares prisoners for (re)integration into wider society, its use proves to be controversial and uneven across jurisdictions. Since the collapse of the USSR, the former Soviet countries have been pursuing different criminal justice policies, liberalising some penal practices whilst retaining many punitive Soviet legacies. Through analysis of the legal provisions regulating temporary prison leave and official statistics in Ukraine, I demonstrate the apparent strain between the official policies and practice. Whilst legally available, temporary leave for prisoners in closed prisons is almost never granted in this Eastern European country. I argue that for Ukraine to reconcile the official rhetoric of rehabilitation and social reintegration of offenders and actual implementation of penal policies, the country must reverse the underlying requirements governing temporary prison leave and expand its use.
Federalism, constitutional recognition and Indigenous Peoples: how a new identity-based state can be established in Australia
(ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2020-05-23)
The debate on constitutional recognition of Indigenous Peoples in Australia has highlighted the desire for meaningful responses to Indigenous Peoples’ claims to sovereignty and self-determination. One potential response is to apply federal principles and establish a new state, or states, for Indigenous Peoples in Australia. This proposal has been most prominently put by Tasmanian Aboriginal leader Michael Mansell. Others have followed. However, (at least) one fundamental problem with this federal idea has not been properly addressed, namely the dispersal and limited geographical concentration of Indigenous people in Australia. This paper asks whether and how federalism can be used to institutionalise the shared and self-rule of widely dispersed minorities, or more specifically, Indigenous Peoples in the settler-majority country of Australia. It demonstrates that a non-territorial approach can be applied to federalism in Australia, and that it may form one possible response to the Uluru Statement from the Heart.
The rehabilitation zone: Living with lemons and elephants in Assam
(SAGE Publications, 2020)
Lemon farming promoted as rehabilitation programs in western Assam has generated income for villages that were deeply affected by ethnic conflict in the 1990s. Rehabilitation is tied to an economic logic linked with the market and a profit-driven measure of development. In the absence of an official reconciliation process on the ground, these economic initiatives have become an ambitious and attractive model for the Indian state to rebuild societies that have witnessed violent ethnic conflicts in Northeast India. Drawing from fieldwork carried out between 2016 and 2019 around Manas National Park, an area within the Bodoland Territorial Autonomous Districts in western Assam, this article examines the experiences and impacts of lemon farming and focuses on practices of rehabilitation on the ground. The process of restoration includes communities living in the villages and the animals inside the park simultaneously. We show how communities are seeking to create connections with the land and their surroundings to overcome trauma and rebuild their lives. Specifically, we focus on lemon farming and the experiences of human–elephants relationships in Manas to highlight how these accounts produce an integrative account of rehabilitation in post-conflict societies. In the backdrop of militarization and structural violence, rehabilitating communities and animals is not a straightforward story. It entails proposing new theoretical frameworks to understand how reconstructing lives and the land is also about transforming relationships between humans and animals under circumstances that are often challenging. Ongoing lemon farming practices and living with elephants in Assam requires envisioning ways of belonging and living on the land and at the same time recognizing the boundaries.
Social Standards in EU and US Trade Agreements
This book examines the causes and consequences of social standards in US and EU preferential trade agreements (PTAs). PTAs are the new reality of the global trading system. Pursued by both developed and developing countries, they increasingly incorporate labor and environmental issues to prevent a race to the bottom in social regulation and counter-protectionism. Using principal-agent theory to explore why US PTAs have stricter social standards than those signed by the EU, Postnikov argues that the level of institutional insulation of trade policy executives from interest groups and legislators determines the design of social standards. In the EU, where institutional insulation is high, social standards mirror the normative preferences of the European Commission leading to a softer approach. In the US, where such insulation is low, social standards are driven by interest groups and legislators they control, resulting in a stricter approach. This book shows that both approaches can be effective but work through different causal mechanisms. To test his argument, Postnikov draws on original data collected in Brussels, Washington, Santiago, Bogota, and Seoul.
Reordering gender systems: can COVID-19 lead to improved gender equality and health?
COVID-19 has delivered a shock to existing gender systems that could recalibrate gender roles, with beneficial effects on population health. The economic arrangements, policy frameworks, and market forces that determine the distribution of paid and unpaid labour across society are powerful structural determinants of health.1 The way that paid and unpaid labour is inequitably divided between men and women is central to the perpetuation of gender inequalities across the globe, and the ways that such divisions can be shifted or disrupted offer critical opportunities to modify the gender-differentiated effects of COVID-19 on health.
Understanding the challenges faced in community-based outreach programs aimed at men who have sex with men in urban Indonesia
(CSIRO Publishing, 2020)
Background: Community-based outreach programs play an important role in the provision of HIV testing, treatment and health care for men who have sex with men (MSM) in Indonesia. However, qualitative studies of community-based HIV programs have mostly focused on clients rather than on outreach workers (OW). The experiences of MSM peer OW provide insights into how to extend and improve community involvement in HIV programs in Indonesia. Methods: This is a qualitative study based on focus group discussions, which brought together MSM OW (n = 14) and healthcare workers (n = 12). This approach facilitated documentation of the challenges associated with community-based outreach programs in Indonesia through a participatory focus group discussion between OW and healthcare workers. Results: Findings are reported in relation to challenges experienced in the context of community outreach, and solutions to the challenges faced by OW. It was found that awareness of a shared commitment to delivering HIV programs can facilitate good relationships between OW and healthcare workers. Conclusion: Future efforts should consider the role of OW within broader relationships, especially with healthcare workers, when developing community-based responses to HIV testing and treatment. Documenting the role of OW can help contribute to an understanding of ways to adapt HIV programs to reduce barriers to access both for those identified as MSM and others who are ambiguously placed in relation to the programmatic use of such categories.