School of Languages and Linguistics - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 852
Explaining the Linguistic Diversity of Sahul Using Population Models
(PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2009-11-01)
The region of the ancient Sahul continent (present day Australia and New Guinea, and surrounding islands) is home to extreme linguistic diversity. Even apart from the huge Austronesian language family, which spread into the area after the breakup of the Sahul continent in the Holocene, there are hundreds of languages from many apparently unrelated families. On each of the subcontinents, the generally accepted classification recognizes one large, widespread family and a number of unrelatable smaller families. If these language families are related to each other, it is at a depth which is inaccessible to standard linguistic methods. We have inferred the history of structural characteristics of these languages under an admixture model, using a Bayesian algorithm originally developed to discover populations on the basis of recombining genetic markers. This analysis identifies 10 ancestral language populations, some of which can be identified with clearly defined phylogenetic groups. The results also show traces of early dispersals, including hints at ancient connections between Australian languages and some Papuan groups (long hypothesized, never before demonstrated). Systematic language contact effects between members of big phylogenetic groups are also detected, which can in some cases be identified with a diffusional or substrate signal. Most interestingly, however, there remains striking evidence of a phylogenetic signal, with many languages showing negligible amounts of admixture.
“Bianco e nero”, gli inizi della decolonizzazione della commedia romantica italiana
(Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia, 2020)
The article explores the movie’s missed opportunity of the movie "Bianco e Nero" to start a new decolonised and decolonising era of the Italian Cinema through the analysis of two key symbols, the Barbie doll and the Trevi Fountain.
Non-Love in a Non-Place: Liminality and Dislocation in Andrei Zvyagintsev’s Loveless
(International Journal of Russian Studies, 2021)
In this article Andrei Zvyagintsev’s film Loveless (2017) is analysed from the angle of domestic space using the theoretical prism of liminality and non-places. It is argued that, while the concept of home may be defined as private and personal, as opposed to public and impersonal, the domestic space in this film, far from being a comforting and reassuring destination in itself, can be read as liminal, as transitory, as a space ‘in-between’ or, indeed, a space which, ideally, should be a sanctuary, but which is, in fact, vulnerable to external forces. The article also examines Loveless in the light of Marc Augé’s seminal work, Non-places: An Introduction to Supermodernity, in particular the extent to which his theory of non-places may, in certain instances in this supermodern globalised world, be as applicable to the domestic space as it is to the increasingly ubiquitous and liminal public spaces of airports, hotels, shopping centres and other typical non-places. It is demonstrated that, as in Zvyagintsev’s earlier films Elena (2011) and Leviathan (2014), Loveless uses a framing technique which highlights the centrality of domestic space in the film. From the outset, the film is concerned with the ‘in-betweenness’ of the characters’ lives, and domestic space plays a key role in this, although it is not consciously sought or coveted by the characters, but rather a consequence of their actions. It is argued that tragedy is not a feature of Loveless: in its place are incomplete transitions, rites of passage awaiting their natural fulfilment. It is this dislocation and liminality which pervades the entire atmosphere of the film and gives it its almost unbearable sense of foreboding.
VARIATION IN THE STRESS OF RUSSIAN FEMININE NOUNS OF MOBILE TYPES D (ЖЕНА́) AND D´(СПИНА́)
(International Journal of Russian Studies, 2020)
In this article two key mobile stress patterns of Russian are analysed, patterns d and d´. The former is characterised by ending stress in the singular and stem stress in the plural, while the latter has the same pattern except for the accusative singular which has stem stress, i.e. it has a mobile sub-paradigm in the singular. Pattern d has been established as not only the largest mobile stress type among first-declension feminine nouns, but also the only pattern which is in the ascendancy. This article attempts to analyse empirically what variation exists within nouns of this paradigm, since it is to be expected that variation would indicate earlier stress types ‒ as an ascendant type, pattern d itself would be expected to be stable as an endpoint for nouns from other stress types, particularly patterns d´, f and f´. Pattern d´ is also briefly analysed in order to establish whether it can be considered a sub-type of pattern d in the sense that nouns which have variation tend to be moving towards pattern d. The hypotheses for both patterns are borne out by the data: pattern d is largely stable and most variation which occurs within it indicates earlier stress types, while pattern d´ exhibits a weak tendency towards pattern d.
Book review: Identity Discourses About Spain and Catalonia in News Media: Understanding Modern Secessionism, Clara Juárez Miró (2020)
<jats:p>Review of: <jats:italic>Identity Discourses About Spain and Catalonia in News Media: Understanding Modern Secessionism</jats:italic>, Clara Juárez Miró (2020)</jats:p> <jats:p>Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, xii+182 pp.,</jats:p> <jats:p>ISBN 978-1-79360-964-9, h/bk, $90.00, £69.00</jats:p>
Dichotic listening is associated with phonological awareness in Australian aboriginal children with otitis media: A remote community-based study
Recent literature has highlighted a link between hearing loss as a result of otitis media in the early years of life and impacted binaural processing skills in later childhood. Such findings are of particular relevance to Indigenous Australian children, who tend to experience otitis media earlier in life and for longer periods than their non-Indigenous counterparts. There is also growing interest in the effects of reduced auditory processing ability on a child's early learning of language and, specifically, on phonological awareness that contributes to word reading skills. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between hearing thresholds, dichotic listening skills and phonological awareness in children with pervasive otitis media (OM) from remote Indigenous communities of Australia who generally do not speak English as a first language. Methods: Participants included one hundred and one children between the ages of 4.8–7.9 years (mean 6.1 years) from three separate remote Northern Territory communities. Evaluations included otoscopy, air conduction PTA, and tympanometry. All children were also assessed on the Dichotic Digits difference test (DDdT) and the Foundations of Early Literacy Assessment (FELA), assessing children's dichotic listening and phonological awareness respectively. Results: The results showed that 56% of the children had middle ear dysfunctions (type B and type C on tympanometry results) in at least one ear on the day. Partial correlation showed a significant correlation, between dichotic scores and FELA with age as covariate (r = 0.45, p < 0.001). One way ANOVA showed females exhibited a significantly higher performance compared to males on FELA [F (1, 99) = 5.47, p = 0.021]. The overall regression model was found to be significant in predicting total FELA scores [F (7, 77) = 7.56, p < 0.0005]. Age and gender as well as dichotic listening scores explain 40.7% of the variance. Conclusions: The results reinforce the importance of managing the ear health of Indigenous children, clarifying the impact this has on listening and phonological awareness. These findings highlight the importance of evaluating children's listening abilities, and how poor listening can impact phonological awareness. The findings have important implications for ensuring optimal listening and learning conditions in schools in remote NT communities.
UniMorph 3.0: Universal morphology
(European Language Resources Association (ELRA), 2020-01-01)
The Universal Morphology (UniMorph) project is a collaborative effort providing broad-coverage instantiated normalized morphological paradigms for hundreds of diverse world languages. The project comprises two major thrusts: a language-independent feature schema for rich morphological annotation and a type-level resource of annotated data in diverse languages realizing that schema. We have implemented several improvements to the extraction pipeline which creates most of our data, so that it is both more complete and more correct. We have added 66 new languages, as well as new parts of speech for 12 languages. We have also amended the schema in several ways. Finally, we present three new community tools: two to validate data for resource creators, and one to make morphological data available from the command line. UniMorph is based at the Center for Language and Speech Processing (CLSP) at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. This paper details advances made to the schema, tooling, and dissemination of project resources since the UniMorph 2.0 release described at LREC 2018.
Nasal coarticulation in Bininj Kunwok: An aerodynamic analysis
(Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2020-12-01)
Bininj Kunwok (BKw), a language spoken in Northern Australia, restricts the degree of anticipatory nasalization, as suggested by previous aerodynamic and acoustic analyses (Butcher 1999). The current study uses aerodynamic measurements of speech to investigate patterns of nasalization and nasal articulation in Bininj Kunwok to compare with Australian languages more generally. The role of nasal coarticulation in ensuring language compre-hensibility a key question in phonetics research today is explored. Nasal aerodynamics is measured in intervocalic, word-medial nasals in the speech of five female speakers of BKw and data are analyzed using Smoothing Spline Analysis of Variance (SSANOVA) and Functional Data Analysis averaging techniques. Results show that in a VNV sequence there is very little anticipatory vowel nasalization with no restriction on carryover nasalization for a following vowel. The maximum peak nasal flow is delayed until the oral release of a nasal for coronal articulations, indicating a delayed velum opening gesture. Patterns of anticipatory nasalization appears similar to nasal airflow in French non-nasalized vowels in oral vowel plus nasal environments (Delvaux et al. 2008). Findings show that Bininj Kunwok speakers use language specific strategies in order to limit anticipatory nasalization, enhancing place of articulation cues at a site of intonational prominence which also is also the location of the majority of place of articulation contrasts within the language. Patterns of airflow suggest enhancement and coarticulatory resistance in prosodically prominent VN and VNC sequences which we interpret as evidence of speakers maintaining a phonological contrast to enhance place of articulation cues.
The alignment of F0 tonal targets under changes in speech rate in Drehu
(Nature Research, 2020-04-01)
This study investigates fundamental frequency alignment to segmental landmarks in Drehu, an Oceanic language. The authors present a production experiment that aimed to evaluate the marking of prosodic prominence, and in particular, the tonal marking of prominence, within the autosegmental-metrical phonology, since stress and prominence system of the language has not been phonetically investigated. A rate manipulation paradigm was chosen to test the segmental anchoring hypothesis, namely, to see whether prominence lending tonal movements exhibit a constant slope due to rate manipulation and whether tonal targets can be associated to segmental anchoring points in the speech stream. The authors find that a rising tonal movement, between a word initial low (L), and a word final high (H) tone, is the most frequent tonal pattern. The word initial L tone seeks to align with the left edge whereas the H tone, at the right edge, seeks to anchor to the last full syllable. In fast speech, tonal targets are produced closer together but the slope remains constant in both speech rates. High tones seek to anchor to the word-final syllable, yet not to any specific segment which suggests a weak version of the segmental anchoring hypothesis applies.
Fundamental Frequency and Regional Variation in Lifou French
(SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2020-09-17)
This study presents two experiments aimed at investigating tune-to-text alignment and pitch scaling in Lifou French, a variety spoken by bilingual speakers of French and Drehu. Descriptions of New Caledonian French have focussed on language use of European descendants or the variety spoken in the urban region, neglecting emergent varieties spoken by the indigenous population in rural areas, like the island Lifou. Due to the reduced inventory of pitch accents, dialectal variation in French intonation has proved to be difficult to detect, which has led to the assumption that French has a relatively homogeneous intonation system across its varieties. This study shows that fine-grained phonetic differences in speaking tempo and at the level of tonal alignment as well as in the scaling of AP-final peaks can be attributed to dialectal variation.
Who is Nature: Ancient Traditions Meet Virtual Reality
(Latin Stories Australia, 2020-12-15)
To investigate the nexus of humanity and nature, in 2019 I visited sacred sites introduced by community elders in Mexico, Cuba, and Australia. Their responses to my question, “what does nature mean to you?” revealed a holistic vision: nature is not a resource to be extracted but a living entity to engage in a relationship. At least as complex as any human being or sentient entity, nature is not a “what” but a “who.”