School of Languages and Linguistics - Research Publications
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German Cinema Book
(British Film Institute, 2020)
This comprehensively revised, updated and significantly extended edition introduces German film history from its beginnings to the present day, covering key periods and movements including early and silent cinema, Weimar cinema, Nazi cinema, the New German Cinema, the Berlin School, the cinema of migration, and moving images in the digital era. Contributions by leading international scholars are grouped into sections that focus on genre; stars; authorship; film production, distribution and exhibition; theory and politics, including women's and queer cinema; and transnational connections. Spotlight articles within each section offer key case studies, including of individual films that illuminate larger histories (Heimat, Downfall, The Lives of Others, The Edge of Heaven and many more); stars from Ossi Oswalda and Hans Albers, to Hanna Schygulla and Nina Hoss; directors including F.W. Murnau, Walter Ruttmann, Wim Wenders and Helke Sander; and film theorists including Siegfried Kracauer and Béla Balázs. The volume provides a methodological template for the study of a national cinema in a transnational horizon.
Trust and Proof: Translators in Renaissance Print Culture
(Brill Academic Publishers, 2018)
Translators’ contribution to the vitality of textual production in the Renaissance is still often vastly underestimated. Drawing on a wide variety of sources published in Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Latin, German, English, and Zapotec, this volume brings a global perspective to the history of translators, and the printed book. Together the essays point out the extent to which particular language cultures were liable to shift, overlap, shrink, and expand during one of the most defining periods in the history of print culture. Interdisciplinary in approach, Trust and Proof investigates translators’ role in the diffusion of discourse about languages and ancient knowledge, as well as changing etiquettes of reading and writing.
Curation of oral tradition from legacy recordings: an Australian example
(Center for Studies in Oral Tradition, 2013-12)
Hundreds of hours of ethnographic field recordings and their associated oral tradition were destined to be lost until the Pacific and Regional Archive for Digital Sources in Endangered Cultures (PARADISEC, http://paradisec.org.au) was established in 2003 to digitize and curate this legacy made by Australian academic researchers since the 1960s (Barwick and Thieberger 2006; Thieberger and Barwick 2012).1 These recordings in the languages of the region around Australia (broadly speaking, an area that includes Indonesia, Papua New Guinea [PNG], and the Pacific Islands) have high cultural value and are often the only records in these languages. Many languages in this region are spoken by few people and are in danger of being lost because of the pressure from neighboring languages or metropolitan languages such as Indonesian, Tok Pisin, English, or French, and so the records made a generation or more ago become all the more valuable. However, despite their unique heritage value, these recordings were not eligible to be preserved or curated by any existing Australian collecting institution. A group of linguists and musicologists planned PARADISEC and sought advice from relevant agencies (in particular from the National Library of Australia and the National Film and Sound Archive). This advice was particularly valuable in allowing us to determine appropriate metadata standards (we use Dublin Core and Open Archives Initiative metadata terms as a subset of our catalog’s metadata) and to understand the more hands-on requirements of cleaning and repairing moldy or damaged analog tapes. We then applied for and received infrastructure funding from the Australian Research Council. With a grant that was to last for just one year, we had to build a successful archive prototype that could then attract further funds.
Mood and transitivity in South Efate
(University of Hawai'i Press, 2012-12)
South Efate, an Oceanic language of central Vanuatu, allows the expression of temporal relations in several ways using markers of aspect and mood. Pro- nominal expression of arguments is obligatory and, as subject proclitics occur in one of three forms (realis, irrealis, and perfect), expression of aspect or mood is required in every sentence. South Efate is one of a group of Vanuatu languages that displays stem-initial mutation, whereby the initial consonant of a very small group of verbs changes to reflect mood. This paper presents evidence that fortis (realis) and lenis (irrealis) stem mutation also correlates with features of transitivity, not a surprising finding following the work of Hopper and Thompson. All else being equal, the fortis form of the verb occurs in clauses that have an overt expression of an object, while the lenis form occurs when there is no object in the clause. A further curiosity is that stem-initial mutation has been maintained for just a small class of verbs, so its correlation with transitivity in just this small class is all the more interesting. This paper explores the relationship between the morphological expression of mood and transitivity in South Efate, and suggests frequency of use as an explanation for the retention of this marginal system that affects only 7 per- cent of verb stems in the lexicon.
An Acoustic and Aerodynamic Analysis of Consonant Articulation in Bininj Gun-wok
This thesis is an acoustic and physiological phonetic analysis of the consonant system in Bininj Gun-wok (BGW), an Australian language spoken in North Western Arnhem Land. The primary aim of this thesis is to provide a detailed phonetic description of an Australian language looking at the articulation of intervocalic stops and nasals. This investigation examines a number of phonological contrasts in the language that have not had prior phonetic investigation. The analysis is divided into three experiments, the first two of which focus on differences in length and strength between stop series in BGW. The third experiment examines patterns of coarticulation within nasals. The materials used consist of two corpora with a total of 24 first language speakers of BGW. Corpus I includes five speakers of the Kuninjku variety and Corpus II includes 19 speakers of the Kunwinjku variety, all recorded under field conditions in Western Arnhem Land. Corpus I is made up of acoustic recordings and Corpus II, physiological recordings with associated time-aligned audio. An important phonological feature of BGW is a two stop series that contrasts for length. The two stops in the series, which are all matched for place of articulation, are phonologically classed as lenis or fortis. The primary focus of this study is to determine the phonetic realisations of these stop categories. The secondary focus of this study is to examines patterns of coarticulation between nasals and stops in BGW, as nasalisation can mask the acoustic cues that are needed to perceive place of articulation. Earlier cross-linguistic studies have consistently shown that duration is a key difference between stop categories within a language. This is particularly for languages that do not use voicing as a cue to the contrast. In the current study, acoustic analysis is used to measure duration and for analyses of burst characteristics of BGW stops. An articulatory analysis investigates differences in strength and also the prevalence and timing of voicing between the stop series. Findings show that there is a clear durational difference between lenis and fortis stops. Voice onset time differences are dependent on place of articulation rather than reliably signalling between stop categories. In addition there is a clear difference in strength in terms of peak intra-oral pressure. In the study, medial homorganic articulations are separated into three categories termed lenis, fortis and geminated consonants. These represent short intra-morphemic stops, long intra-morphemic stops and long inter-morphemic stops respectively. Fortis stops and geminates clusters do not differ in terms of duration. There are however measurable differences between them including pressure — pressure measured over time — showing that duration and pressure are independent. The timing of pressure peak is similar for lenis and fortis stops is similar, yet geminates show a delay in the intra-oral pressure peak. Across languages, anticipatory nasalisation is thought to be under direct control of the speaker. Carry-over nasalisation in contrast has proven to be a result of bio-mechanical inertia. The secondary focus of this thesis is an examination of nasalisation and directionality of nasal assimilation in BGW as well as the durational aspects of nasals in clusters. Aerodynamic results show that the rise of the nasal airflow, in medial nasals, is delayed to be almost coincident with the oral occlusion. The inference is that the velum is closed during the preceding vowel and opens quickly at the onset of the nasal. In a cluster of nasals followed by a stop, the nasal has a greater duration than the stop. In clusters of stops followed by nasals, it is the stop that has the greater duration. This suggests strengthening in a medial position. The post-tonic medial position is prosodically eminent, as this is where the majority of phonetic contrasts are found for Bininj Gun-wok and Australian languages in general. This investigation into medial consonants in BGW represents the first major phonetic investigation into stop articulation in an Australian language and provides key support for this proposition.
Handbooks of Aboriginal languages
(Institute for Aboriginal Development, 1986)
Handbooks of Australian Aboriginal languages have been or are currently being produced in various parts of the country. In this paper we wish to address some issues and problems we have encountered in compiling handbooks which may have wider theoretical import and practical applications.
The place of foreign culture in the Saudi pre-service EFL teacher education
(Saudi Students Schools & Clubs in UK and Ireland, 2008)
In this paper, the researcher presents the results of an investigation of the place of foreign culture in preservice EFL teacher education. Grounded in the context of Saudi Arabia, qualitative analysis indicates that widespread static views of culture across the education sector minimise the place of culture in both policy and practice. Intercultural approaches need to be adapted as a way to reconceptualise culture dynamically. Implications included recommending supportive policies, appropriate pedagogies, and computer-assisted exposure to better emphasise the place of foreign culture within pre-service EFL teacher education.
Computers in field linguistics
Computers have been associated with field linguistics from their earliest days, as witness the enthusiasm with which computers were embraced by linguists, from mainframe computers in the 1960s to personal computers in the 1980s. While initially it was common to force our efforts into the framework provided by particular software, we are now more aware of the need to see the data itself as the primary concern of the analyst and not the software that we use to manipulate the data. Inasmuch as it allows us to carry out the main functions desired by a field linguist, software is a tool through which our data passes, the data becoming transformed in some way, but surviving the journey sufficiently to live on, independent of any software, into the future.
Towards a Web search service for minority language communities
(State Library of Victoria, 2006)
Locating resources of interest on the web in the general case is at best a low precision activity owing to the large number of pages on the web (for example, Google covers more than 8 billion web pages). As language communities (at all points on the spectrum) increasingly self-publish materials on the web, so interested users are beginning to search for them in the same way that they search for general internet resources, using broad coverage search engines with typically simple queries. Given that language resources are in a minority case on the web in general, finding relevant materials for low density or lesser used languages on the web is in general an increasingly inefficient exercise even for experienced searchers. Furthermore, the inconsistent coverage of web content between search engines serves to complicate matters even more. A number of previous research efforts have focused on using web data to create language corpora, mine linguistic data, building language ontologies, create thesaurii etc. The work reported in this paper contrasts with previous research in that it is not specifically oriented towards creation of language resources from web data directly, but rather, increasing the likelihood that end users searching for resources in minority languages will actually find useful results from web searches. Similarly, it differs from earlier work by virtue of its focus on search optimization directly, rather than as a component of a larger process (other researchers use the seed URIs discovered via the mechanism described in this paper in their own varied work). The work here can be seen to contribute to a user-centric agenda for locating language resources for lesser-used languages on the web. (From Introduction)