School of Languages and Linguistics - Research Publications

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    Editorial
    White, R (Wiley, 2021-01-01)
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    On Recent Nationalisms in Translation Studies
    Pym, A (Korean Association for Public Translation and Interpretation, 2021-11-30)
    ABSTRACT: If the intercultural were ever neatly opposed to the national as a frame for translational action and thought, then it would seem to be losing. Nationalist frames have gained new-found energy in various forms: translation is seen a weapon because nation-states support and manipulate it (Sapiro), the ethical aim of translation is to advance one’s national interests and priorities (Ren and Gao), and each country’s “translation capacity” can be quantified and ranked on a league table of competing nations (BFSU). Translators thus become foot-soldiers in battles to gain prestige on the world stage. Such manifestations of nationalism appear to run counter to the causes of intercultural positions and the ethics of cooperative communication between unequal parties. The need for translation nevertheless now lies more urgently in the culturally and linguistically diverse communities within and across national borders, where successful social inclusion is inseparable from the use of translation not as a weapon, but as a means of cooperation. 논문초록: 번역행위 및 사고의 프레임으로서의 상호문화주의가 민족주의와 대척점에 있는 개념이라면, 지금 상호문화주의는 민족주의에 기세가 밀리고 있는 것으로 보일 것이다. 민족주의 프레임은 다양한 형태로 새로운 동력을 얻고 있으며, 번역은 그 무기로 인식된다. 민족국가에서 번역을 지원하고 조작(Sapiro)하고 있고, 국가의 이익과 우선순위를 증진하는 것이 번역의 윤리적 목적(Ren and Gao)이며, 서로 경쟁하는 국가들의 리그 순위표 상에서 각국의 ‘번역능력(translation capacity)’을 계량화·순위화(BFSU)할 수 있기 때문이다. 이에 따라 번역사는 세계 무대에서 명성을 얻기 위한 전투에서 보병 역할을 하게 되었다. 이러한 민족주의의 발현은 상호문화주의적 입장의 대의, 그리고 불평등한 세력 사이의 협력적 소통의 윤리에 배치되는 것으로 보인다. 그럼에도 불구하고, 오늘날 각국의 국경 안팎에 자리한 문화적·언어적으로 다양한 공동체에서 번역의 필요성은 더욱 시급해지고 있다. 이들 공동체에서 사회적 포용의 성공 여부는 번역의 활용과 불가분의 관계를 가지며, 이때 번역은 무기가 아닌 협력의 수단으로 기능한다.
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    IKER GONZÁLEZ-ALLENDE. Hombres en movimiento. Masculinidades españolas en los exilios y emigraciones, 1939-1999. West Lafayette, Indiana: Purdue UP, 2018. xi + 309 pp.
    Martínez-Expósito, A (University of Ottawa Library, 2021-11-22)
    Reseña de Hombres en movimiento. Masculinidades españolas en los exilios y emigraciones, 1939-1999 de Iker González-Allende.
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    Packaging research artefacts with RO-Crate
    Soiland-Reyes, S ; Sefton, P ; Crosas, M ; Castro, LJ ; Coppens, F ; Fernández, JM ; Garijo, D ; Grüning, B ; La Rosa, M ; Leo, S ; Ó Carragáin, E ; Portier, M ; Trisovic, A ; RO-Crate Community, ; Groth, P ; Goble, C ; Peroni, S (IOS Press, 2022-07-20)
    An increasing number of researchers support reproducibility by including pointers to and descriptions of datasets, software and methods in their publications. However, scientific articles may be ambiguous, incomplete and difficult to process by automated systems. In this paper we introduce RO-Crate, an open, community-driven, and lightweight approach to packaging research artefacts along with their metadata in a machine readable manner. RO-Crate is based on Schema.org annotations in JSON-LD, aiming to establish best practices to formally describe metadata in an accessible and practical way for their use in a wide variety of situations. An RO-Crate is a structured archive of all the items that contributed to a research outcome, including their identifiers, provenance, relations and annotations. As a general purpose packaging approach for data and their metadata, RO-Crate is used across multiple areas, including bioinformatics, digital humanities and regulatory sciences. By applying “just enough” Linked Data standards, RO-Crate simplifies the process of making research outputs FAIR while also enhancing research reproducibility. An RO-Crate for this article11 https://w3id.org/ro/doi/10.5281/zenodo.5146227 is archived at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5146227.
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    Decolonising Poetics. Paul Carter Talks to Roberta Trapè Interview Conducted by Email in June 2021
    Trapè, R (Edizioni Ca Foscari, 2021-12-20)
    In such influential publications as The Road to Botany Bay. An Essay in Spatial History (2010), The Lie of the Land (1996), Dark Writing: Geography, Performance, design (2008), Meeting Place: the Human Encounter and the Challenge of Coexistence (2013) and Decolonising Governance: Archipelagic Thinking (2018) Paul Carter (born in the UK in 1951) has explored the conceptual underpinnings of colonisation and the preconditions of decolonisation. A postcolonial poetics informs a prolific public art and radiophonic output reported in books like Material Thinking: the Theory and Practice of Creative Research (2004), Ground Truthing: Explorations in a Creative Region (2010), Places Made after Their Stories: Design and the Art of Choreotopography (2015) and Amplifications: Poetic Migration, Auditory Memory (2019). Carter is resident in Melbourne where he is Professor of Design (urbanism) at RMIT University.
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    La escena primordial en “Dolor y gloria” de Pedro Almodóvar
    Martínez-Expósito, A (Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wroclawskiego, 2021-12-09)
    Dolor y gloria ejemplifica la ambigua relación de Almodóvar con su propia biografía como materia narrativa. En la escena central de la película (cúspide argumental, estructural y simbólica) se narra la toma de conciencia homosexual del protagonista. Un análisis de esta escena primordial revela la presencia de numerosos elementos mitológicos, tanto en el plano narrativo como en el simbólico.
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    Does Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) Have a Role in the Transcription of Indistinct Covert Recordings for Forensic Purposes?
    Loakes, D (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2022-06-14)
    The transcription of covert recordings used as evidence in court is a huge issue for forensic linguistics. Covert recordings are typically made under conditions in which the device needs to be hidden, and so the resulting speech is generally indistinct, with overlapping voices and background noise, and in many cases the acoustic record cannot be analyzed via conventional phonetic techniques (i.e. phonetic segments are unclear, or there are no cues at all present acoustically). In the case of indistinct audio, the resulting transcripts that are produced, often by police working on the case, are often questionable and despite their unreliable nature can be provided as evidence in court. Injustices can, and have, occurred. Given the growing performance of automatic speech recognition (ASR) technologies, and growing reliance on such technologies in everyday life, a common question asked, especially by lawyers and other legal professionals, is whether ASR can solve the problem of what was said in indistinct forensic audio, and this is the main focus of the current paper. The paper also looks at forced alignment, a way of automatically aligning an existing transcriptions to audio. This is an area that needs to be explored in the context of forensic linguistics because transcripts can technically be “aligned” with any audio, making it seem as if it is “correct” even if it is not. The aim of this research is to demonstrate how automatic transcription systems fare using forensic-like audio, and with more than one system. Forensic-like audio is most appropriate for research, because there is greater certainty with what the speech material consists of (unlike in forensic situations where it cannot be verified). Examples of how various ASR systems cope with indistinct audio are shown, highlighting that when a good-quality recording is used ASR systems cope well, with the resulting transcript being usable and, for the most part, accurate. When a poor-quality, forensic-like recording is used, on the other hand, the resulting transcript is effectively unusable, with numerous errors and very few words recognized (and in some cases, no words recognized). The paper also demonstrates some of the problems that arise when forced-alignment is used with indistinct forensic-like audio—the transcript is simply “forced” onto an audio signal giving completely wrong alignment. This research shows that the way things currently stand, computational methods are not suitable for solving the issue of transcription of indistinct forensic audio for a range of reasons. Such systems cannot transcribe what was said in indistinct covert recordings, nor can they determine who uttered the words and phrases in such recordings, nor prove that a transcript is “right” (or wrong). These systems can indeed be used advantageously in research, and for various other purposes, and the reasons they do not work for forensic transcription stems from the nature of the recording conditions, as well as the nature of the forensic context.
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    Language naming in Indigenous Australia: a view from western Arnhem Land
    Vaughan, J ; Singer, R ; Garde, M (DE GRUYTER MOUTON, 2022-05-18)
    Abstract Language naming systems are local ways of organising diversity, yet the language names used by linguists are sometimes incommensurable with the lived social reality of speakers. The process of assigning language names is not neutral, trivial or objective: it is a highly political process driven and shaped by understandings of group identity, similarity and difference. Closer attention to local perspectives on language naming offers important insights into ideologies around social and linguistic differentiation. This paper draws together accounts of diverse language naming practices from across Indigenous Australia and applies a close lens to the region of western Arnhem Land. Through an examination of three groups (speakers of Bininj Kunwok, Mawng, and Burarra), we describe the range of strategies speakers use to divide up their local language ecologies, practices for naming lects, and the role of variation in the processes of differentiation. Naming practices between these groups show interesting similarities but also striking differences. We further highlight the interplay between two key processes which characterise local language naming strategies in the region: the ‘erasure’ of difference, typically from the perspective of a politically more powerful group, and the intentional creation of linguistic differentiation, or ausbau.
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    Liminal lieux de mémoire
    McGregor, A (Liverpool University Press, 2021-06-01)
    This article examines the representation of postcolonial memory in Tony Gatlif’s 2004 film Exils / Exiles. The constant movement that occurs in the film through travel, music, and dance reinforces the permanent dislocation of the film’s pied-noir and beurette protagonists. The film’s road-movie narrative represents, on the one hand, a gravitational pull away from the French Republican integrationist ‘centre’ towards an increasingly complex and diverse landscape of cultural identities linked by France’s colonial history, and on the other, a sense of nostalgia for an Algeria that no longer exists and may never have existed. In so doing, Exils represents modern metropolitan France as a dynamic and polycentric postcolonial space whose lieux de mémoire can and should be positioned not only in geographical and cultural territories that lie outside its contemporary national borders, but also in the liminal spaces that characterize the migrant experience. In line with the title of Gatlif’s film, the protagonists find themselves in a state of permanent exile, both from Algeria and from France. The ‘destination’ of the return to cultural origin, Algeria, emerges as a fundamental but nevertheless mirage-like lieu de mémoire that, notwithstanding its cultural and geographical significance, serves primarily to facilitate a deeper understanding by the protagonists of their personal and collective identity that has long been internalized in the unanchored liminal space of the postcolonial migrant journey.