School of Historical and Philosophical Studies - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 1383
All the Cherethites, and all the Pelethites, and all the Gittites (Samuel 2:15-18)’ - An Up-to-Date Account of Minoan Connections with the Philistines
The ethnonyms Cherethite and Pelethite, and associations of the Philistines with Caphtor in the Old Testament point to a Cretan origin for them in literary tradition. This tradition, combined with the well-known Philistine production of Mycenaean style pottery, has been criticized by those reluctant to simplistically associate pots with peoples. Additional categories of evidence indicating an Aegean origin for the Philistines are well rehearsed. This contribution reviews the current state of understanding of the specific links between the Aegean and Philistia with regard to recent research, and with special reference to Crete. I briefly discuss ritual action, contextual analysis, architecture, administrative practices, inscriptions, and methodology. Using a transcultural approach, it is proposed that some aspects of Minoan culture survived in Philistia, embedded among other cultural components associated with the Mycenaeans, Cypriots, Anatolians, and Canaanites.
Why did Ukrainian Red Army Men go over to the Germans? The Case of Defectors to the Wehrmacht’s 296 Infantry Division, 1942-1943
(National Academy of Sciences Ukraine, Institute of Ukrainian History, 2019-09-01)
The purpose of this study is to analyse the reasons for defection among Ukrainian Red Army men during World War II. The research methodology is a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. We analyse interrogation reports of Red Army defectors created by the counter-intelligence officer of the German 296 ID both for the reasons defectors gave for crossing the frontline and for the frequency their reasons fell into certain categories. We compare these data with the larger group of Soviet defectors, including other Soviet nationalities. The scientific novelty consists in combining cultural history with quantification and extending a methodology developed for Red Army defectors as a whole to the subset of Ukrainians among them. The article's source base is multi-archival, drawing on Ukrainian and Russian archives in addition to the German military archive. Conclusions. In the aggregate Ukrainians were not motivated in significantly different ways from Soviet defectors of other nationalities. Ukrainians were more often politicized than other nationalities, but the broad social and political grievances they expressed were shared by many Soviet citizens. Many of the Ukrainian defectors who were politicized enough to want to fight against the Soviets to liberate their "homeland" were imagining this home as the multi-national Soviet Union rather than a Ukrainian national territory. The political grievances which motivated these politicized Ukrainians were political (lack of freedom, repression) or social (the collective farms, terrible living conditions) rather than national (freedom for Ukraine). Ukrainian nationalists were in the minority among defectors, and tended to come from the formerly Polish territories annexed after the start of World War II in Europe.
Violence from Below: Explaining Crimes against Civilians across Soviet Space, 1943-1947
(ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2016-08-01)
The end of World War II brought little relief to the lands it ravaged most. Mass wartime violence continued in the Soviet space beyond the ‘false peace’ of 1945. Historians have sought to explain this violence in terms of the ‘wartime brutalisation’ of state and citizens alike, though this approach is limited in explaining how and why violence continued after 1945. This article shifts focus from psychology to social history to argue that the disintegration of Soviet state control is central to explaining the enduring violence after 1945 and understanding its emergence as much ‘from below’ as ‘from above’.
Not an Ordinary Man: Ivan Nikitich Kononov and the Problem of Frontline Defection from the Red Army, 1941-1945
The question of Red Army soldiers crossing the lines to the Germans during the German-Soviet war of 1941-45 has long obsessed historians. Some have treated all Soviet prisoners of war as deserters to the enemy, while others have tried to minimize the phenomenon. This paper explores newly available evidence from German and Soviet sources in an empirical exploration of the reasons, the extent, and the problems of the process of switching allegiance at the frontline.
Writing Veterans' History: A Conversation on the Twentieth Century
(ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2019-04-03)
This article is a conversation between five specialists of veterans’ history on the current direction of the field and its importance to the study of war and society. The discussants offer an an overview of current methodologies, definitions and historiographical approaches. Concentrating on the experiences of twentieth-century veterans (particularly after 1945) and using a diverse range of case studies from across the world, this article also asks what connections bound veteran communities together, and how we as historians might conceptualise veterans: as a class, as a collective, or as a far looser grouping of individuals? Finally, this article explores what distinguishes veteranhood after 1945 and the evolving relationship between veterans and the memory of conflict.
The Memory Revolution Meets the Digital Age: Red Army Soldiers Remember World War II
(Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2019)
This essay analyzes iremember.ru – an open-access oral history collection containing more than 2,500 interviews with Soviet veterans of the Second World War. Launched in 2000 as a small grassroots project, it soon received state backing and grew into a vital element of Russia’s contemporary memory landscape. The essay examines the origins of this project and its value as a historical source; just as well, it explores its evolution and the curious role it plays in contemporary Russian memorial culture. Bringing together history, memory studies, and the study of contemporary politics, the essay argues that iremember.ru provides important insights into both the Soviet experience of the Second World War and the forces that shape political discourse in Russia today.
Stalin's Defectors How Red Army Soldiers Became Hitler's Collaborators, 1941-1945
(Oxford University Press, 2017-06-29)
Based on a broad range of sources, this volume investigates the extent, the context, the scenarios, the reasons, the aftermath, and the historiography of frontline defection.
The Soviet Union: A Short History
(Wiley Blackwell, 2019)
An acclaimed historian explores the dynamic history of the twentieth century Soviet Union In ten concise and compelling chapters, The Soviet Union covers the entire Soviet Union experience from the years 1904 to 1991 by putting the focus on three major themes: warfare, welfare, and empire. Throughout the book, Mark Edele-a noted expert on the topic-clearly demonstrates that the Soviet Union was more than simply “Russia.” Instead, it was a multi-ethnic empire. The author explains that there were many incarnations of Soviet society throughout its turbulent history, each one a representative of Soviet socialism. The text covers a wide range of topics: The end Romanov empire; The outbreak of World War I; The Bolshevik Revolution of 1917; The breakdown of the old empire and its re-constitution in the Civil War; The New Economic Policy; The rise of Stalin; The Soviet’s role in World War II; Post war normalization; and Gorbachev’s attempt to end the Cold War. The author also explores the challenges encountered by the successor states, their struggles with and against democracy, capitalism, authoritarianism, and war. This vital resource: •Provides a concise overview of the history of the Soviet Union •Includes information on the latest research that takes the broad view of the history of the Soviet Union and its place in world history •Treats scholarly disagreements as part of the history of the influence of the Soviet Union on the course of the twentieth century •Offers suggestion for further readings and a link to online primary sources Written for students of twentieth century Russia, the Russian Revolution, the Soviet Union, and the Cold War, and twentieth century World History, The Soviet Union: A Short History is a volume in the popular Wiley Short Histories series.
Fighting Russia's History Wars Vladimir Putin and the Codification of World War II
(INDIANA UNIV PRESS, 2017-09-01)
Vladimir Putin shows remarkable interest in history in general and World War II in particular. This article explores this historian-president's attempts to codify the memory of this war in an open attempt to transmit a useful past to the younger generation. It argues that top-down models of historical memory are of little explanatory value in the Russian situation. The president rides a wave of historical revisionism that he shapes at the same time. Putin's government successfully uses it to mobilize Russian society against critical minorities within and perceived enemies without. The far-reaching consequences of this politicization for the history of World War II are sketched in the final section of the article.
E-Qe-Ta: Conceptions of Warrior Beauty and Constructions of Masculinity on Postpalatial Crete
This article examines the evidence for constructions of warrior beauty and masculinity in Crete at the time of the Bronze to Iron Age transition (ca. 1300-1100 BCE).
Finding Forrester: The life and death of Joseph Forrester, convict silversmith
(Warners Group, UK, 2014)
Joseph Forrester was a convict whose transportation to Tasmania offered him the opportunity to establish himself as the area's foremost silversmith, if he could only escape his criminal urges. This article was presented in 2 parts, the first in the Jul/Aug issue and the second in the Sep/Oct issue.