Business & Economics Collected Works - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-60 of 99
The Demand and Supply of Esteem: An experimental analysis
(ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2021-12-01)
We use a laboratory experiment to identify some determinants of variation across individuals in the demand and supply of esteem. Some participants can choose, at a cost, buy ‘credits’ so as to appear to others to have a better performance on a real effort task than they really do: this purchase reflects esteem seeking. The provision of esteem, via a partner's feedback on performance, is also recorded. We find: (i) those with a low willingness to supply effort have a lower probability of purchasing credits, (ii) participants matched with low scoring partners buy more credits (iii) feedback is improved for those purchasing credits.
Projecting innovation in higher education: An Australian study
(Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia, 2020)
This paper presents the findings of a preliminary study that reviews the literature detailing the historical trajectory of innovation in higher education. It contextualises this history for the 21st Century university (specifically for its developments in teaching and learning). Against this backdrop, the study interrogates the ontological disconnect of the university serving its community while also being a driver for change. A scoping study and textual analysis of the innovation strategies of all 40 Australian universities is presented. Per conjecturam, the study poses the question; if every university purports to be innovating in teaching and learning, how might a university reconsider its interpretation and representation of innovation in this space so as to become genuinely innovative?
The Evolving Role of Internal Organization Development Offices in Higher Education: Perspectives from Australia and the United States
(Organization Development Network, 2021)
Internal organization development offices, scholars, and practitioners have an important role to play in helping organizations and their leaders navigate the ambiguity, complexity, and disruption posed by the COVID-19 pandemic and in helping them repair, recover, and reinvent for a post-pandemic future. Given the wide range of contemporary challenges and the need for leaders at levels of higher education to engage directly with these challenges, internal organiza¬tion development offices will need to straddle both operational and humanis¬tic imperatives. This article provides an overview of two internal organization development offices—one in Australia and one in the United States—and how these offices have evolved to best meet the short-term and long-term needs of university colleagues.
Stepping up to Teaching in Business: Understanding Teaching Effectiveness for Small Classes
This article provides those teaching in small classes in an Australian tertiary environment with some recommendations on how to get started and tips for effective teaching. The focus of the advice is on small class teaching, which is generally comprised of fewer than 30 students. The tips presented are centred on being organised, understanding your content and your students, generating engagement and norms for participation, as well as investing in adaptable skill development. A seven step process to teaching effectiveness is reviewed. These tips provide teachers with foundational knowledge that can be transferred to teaching large classes.
Academy of Management Journal, 1958-2014: a citation analysis
This paper provides a citation network analysis of publications from the Academy of Management Journal, one of the key US-based journals in the field of Management. Our analysis covers all publications in the journal from 1958–2014. This represents the entire history of the journal until the arbitrary cut-off point of our study. The paper analyses the most published authors, most cited articles, most cited authors, top institutions, and the nationalities of authors that are most represented in the journal. 2304 articles containing 114,550 references were taken from the primary data source, the Web of Science™. An analysis of 114,550 citations was carried out using the Web of Science™ online analytics tool and Excel®. Gephi™, a data visualisation and manipulation software, was used to provide a visual representation of the citation networks. Results indicate that the most published authors within AMJ throughout the journal’s history are Ivancevich, Golembiewski and Hambrick. The three most cited authors within AMJ are Pfeffer, Porter and Thompson. The single most cited article is Pfeffer and Salancik’s 1978 article The external control of organizations: a resource dependence perspective. A keyword analysis revealed that the most important terms used in the journal’s history were ‘Performance’, ‘Organization’ and ‘Work’. Results from this paper extend our previous citation analyses of key journals in the discipline of Higher Education to a new discipline—the field of Management. The paper provides evidence of how visual analyses can help to represent the citation “geography” of a journal over time.
Resilience to Loneliness Amongst Older Adults Living in the Bronx, NY, During the COVID-19 Pandemic
(Oxford University Press, 2020-12-16)
Abstract Older adults may be particularly vulnerable to experiencing loneliness as a result of stay-at-home and social distancing orders during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study evaluated change in loneliness following the COVID-19 outbreak, using a longitudinal design and a validated loneliness measure, in a well-characterized sample who are at heightened risk for COVID-19 due to both age and location. The study included n = 226 older adults aged 70-90 years old, living in the Bronx, New York City, who had completed the 3-item Loneliness Scale prior to and during the peak of the COVID-19 outbreak in New York City. There was no evidence of significant increases in mean loneliness from pre- to post-COVID-19 outbreak. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify risk and protective factors for change in loneliness during the COVID-19 outbreak, adjusting for pre-outbreak loneliness. Living alone, higher levels of education, greater worry about contracting the coronavirus, and limiting of daily exercise activities were risk factors for greater loneliness after the outbreak. In contrast, Black race, older age, greater social support and frequent social interactions via video call, all related to lower levels of loneliness after the outbreak.The outcomes of this study demonstrate substantial resilience among older adults to loneliness in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, and highlight key risk and protective factors that may play an important role in individual differences in loneliness as pandemic-driven isolation continues.
Approaches for Modeling of Intensive Longitudinal Data to Understand Cognitive Aging
(Oxford University Press, 2020-12-16)
Abstract Understanding age-related change in cognition and identification of pathological changes requires sensitive and valid measurement of cognitive performance across time. Technological advances, such as ambulatory assessment of cognition using smartphones, have enabled intensive longitudinal methods where data is collected with many measurements over time. Our research group has developed novel ambulatory assessments that provide reliable, sensitive, and ecologically valid measurement of cognition across multiple timescales; from momentary changes to change across years. This symposium will present a spectrum of approaches to analysis of intensive longitudinal data that can inform models of cognitive aging. All three presentations will draw on data from measurement burst studies that apply our ambulatory cognitive assessment methods in community-based samples (i.e., systematically recruited in the Bronx, New York). For each measurement burst, participants undergo assessment consisting of brief surveys and cognitive tests via smartphone, up to 7 times per day across 14 days. Oravecz et al. will discuss the application of a Bayesian multilevel implementation of the double exponential model to account for retest effects while quantifying change in peak cognitive performance across time. Kang et al., will demonstrate a growth curve modeling approach for assessing the effects of between-person variables (i.e., loneliness) on change in cognition across measurement bursts. Harrington et al., will demonstrate a model-based cluster analysis approach, leveraging ambulatory assessments of subjective and objective cognitive function to unpack latent groups as a function of age and loneliness. Measurement, Statistics, and Research Design Interest Group Sponsored Symposium.
Loneliness and Profiles of Objective and Subjective Memory During Midlife
(Oxford University Press, 2020-12-16)
Abstract Loneliness is a risk factor for dementia, however it’s relationship with cognitive health during midlife is unclear. We evaluated whether loneliness was associated with profiles of objective and subjective memory in younger and middle-aged adults. Participants (aged 25 to 64 years) underwent an initial loneliness assessment, followed by 14-days of momentary (5 per day) cognitive assessments (objective memory) and daily ratings of memory (subjective memory). Cluster analysis was conducted using person-level means of objective and subjective memory. Three clusters were identified: (1) highest objective and subjective memory (9%); (2) lowest subjective but not objective memory (84%); (3) lowest objective but not subjective memory (7%).There was a trend for higher levels of loneliness in Cluster 2 relative to Clusters 1 and 3. Results suggest that loneliness is more closely related with subjective than objective memory during midlife and are informative for development of interventions targeting cognitive health. Part of a symposium sponsored by the Measurement, Statistics, and Research Design Interest Group.
Loneliness and Cognitive Functioning Over Time: Using Ambulatory Cognitive Assessment
(Oxford University Press, 2020-12-16)
Loneliness has been investigated as a risk factor for cognitive health, but results were inconsistent. This study used three measurement bursts of ambulatory cognitive assessment to determine whether loneliness affects longitudinal changes in cognitive functioning in daily life. At each burst, participants performed cognitive assessment five times a day for 14 days. 138 adults (Mage=49.4) who completed all three bursts were included in this study. Growth curve modeling showed that, on average, scores of cognitive functioning were improved across a 2 year period (p&lt;.001). The chronic lonely group (in the highest tertile at all 3 bursts) showed less improvement in scores compared to non-lonely people (p&lt;.01), although there was no difference in cognitive functioning at the baseline between two groups. This study indicates that we need a repeated measurement of cognitive functioning and longitudinal approach to detect the effect of chronic loneliness on the rate of cognitive change. Part of a symposium sponsored by the Measurement, Statistics, and Research Design Interest Group.
Assessing critical thinking in business education: Key issues and practical solutions
(Elsevier BV, 2021-11)
Developing critical thinking is an important goal in higher education and, more importantly, in business education. Yet, it is uncertain to what extent assessment influences students' critical thinking development and enhancement. This paper presents data from a study that applied a framework we developed to identify evidence of students’ ability to think critically and whether students face challenges at applying critical thinking. A sample of 100, 2000-word group reports from a masters business analysis subject were evaluated using a critical thinking assessment rubric. We followed this with a content analysis of 49 reports using our developed framework to identify the demonstration of critical thinking dispositions and abilities. The findings from both analyses indicate a difference between student reports on how critical thinking is demonstrated. Most importantly, our developed framework provides a novel way to analyse student reports that inform whether they demonstrate the specific components of critical thinking dispositions and abilities. The evaluation using our established framework enables us to offer practical suggestions that university instructors can use to address the issues and challenges raised that hinder critical thinking acquisition via assessment practice in business education.
The Web-Based Uprise Program for Mental Health in Australian University Students: Protocol for a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
(JMIR PUBLICATIONS, INC, 2020-12-01)
BACKGROUND: University students are vulnerable to poor mental health, psychological distress, and loneliness relative to nonuniversity student peers. However, the rate of seeking mental health treatment among university students is low. Web-based psychological interventions may provide an opportunity for supporting vulnerable university students who are unlikely to otherwise seek support. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine the feasibility, acceptability, safety, and efficacy of an existing web-based transdiagnostic cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) mental health program for use among Australian university students. METHODS: This is a pilot randomized controlled trial comparing a self-directed web-based CBT mental health program with a waitlist control. The self-directed modules will be augmented with optional webchat or telephone coaching with a therapist. The recruitment target is 70 university students who do not present with a clinical mental health disorder. Allocation will be made in a 1:1 ratio and will occur after the initial baseline assessment. Assessments will be completed at baseline, upon completion of a 4-week waitlist (waitlist group only), upon completion of the program, and at 3 months after completion of the program. RESULTS: The trial was funded in June 2018, and the protocol was approved by the Swinburne University Human Research Ethics Committee in September 2018. Recruitment commenced in October 2018, with the first participant allocated in November 2018. A total of 70 participants were recruited to the trial. The trial recruitment ceased in June 2019, and data collection was finalized in December 2019. We expect the final data analysis to be completed by November 2020 and results to be published early in 2021. The primary outcomes are feasibility, acceptability, safety, and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. The secondary outcomes are psychological wellbeing, quality of life, loneliness, self-reported physical health status, emotion regulation, and cognitive and mindfulness processes. CONCLUSIONS: The acceptability, feasibility, safety, and efficacy of a web-based mental health program in university students will be evaluated. Web-based mental health programs offer the opportunity to engage university students who may be reluctant to seek support through traditional face-to-face mental health services, and the transdiagnostic approach of the program has the potential to address the breadth of mental health concerns of university students. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ACTRN12618001604291; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?ACTRN=12618001604291. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/21307.
Partnerships for Learning and Belonging in Tertiary Education: A Social Capital Analysis
(Springer Nature Singapore, 2019)
This chapter provides an analysis of peer partnership activities in tertiary education using the framework of social capital. The concept of social capital, with links to sociology, politics, economics and education, is used to explore the benefits that arise from peer to peer interactions, including student peer mentoring and staff observation of teaching programs. Although the concept of social capital is not widely discussed in the literature in either of these areas, the value of peer networks is at the core of both processes and social capital offers a way to think about and into these practices. The chapter begins by describing the concept of social capital and its historical development. We define different types of social capital. Following this introduction, we examine the literature on student peer mentoring and staff peer observation of teaching, with a focus on how these two processes can build social capital for their participants and benefit tertiary institutions. A key driver for institutional growth in the tertiary education sector is the need to foster learning and professional environments that help people work more effectively together. Using these two common practices, we show how building social capital through positive and productive peer partnership relationships develops a sense of belonging and social cohesion in a range of settings and enhances learning. Findings from a range of studies summarised in this chapter, including our own research, show that students and staff, individuals and groups, were able to effectively build both trust, engagement and social cohesion, key variables that are often used to measure the benefits of building social capital.
Wellbeing Literacy: The Necessary Ingredient in Positive Education
(Juniper Publishers, 2017)
Wellbeing can be viewed as a resource for life, resulting in individual skills and community assets. It is not surprising therefore, to see developing research presenting the benefits of integrating learning about wellbeing within educational contexts, with the potential outcome of building sustainable wellbeing literacy. Developing wellbeing knowledge is key to building core wellbeing literacy skills. This in turn can significantly impact employability post education, and therefore, life trajectory. Building and sustaining wellbeing through learning about wellbeing within educational contexts can provide timely, personalised, system-wide opportunities to build capacity in initiating, developing, contributing to and sustaining decision-making toward achieving successful wellbeing and life outcomes.
Peer review of teaching in Australian higher education: a systematic review
(ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2020-11-19)
Over recent decades, peer review of teaching has become an important mechanism for improving the quality of teaching in higher education. While there is considerable international research on peer review of teaching outcomes, these are not widely reported within Australian universities. This paper reports on a systematic review of published studies examining peer review of teaching characteristics that contribute to teaching development in Australian higher education. Following a search of peer reviewed literature published over three decades, 19 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis. A thematic synthesis revealed teaching development outcomes gained through peer review of teaching span factors at organisational (N = 16), program (N = 13) and individual (N = 4) levels. Organisational factors included disciplinary context, program sustainability, collegiality and leadership. Program factors included framework, program design, basis of participation, observation, feedback and reflective practice. Factors at the individual level included prior experience and participants’ perceived development requirements. In addition to reporting on teaching development outcomes, some studies reported on enhanced student learning outcomes (N = 5). Improved reporting of program design in addition to validated tools to assess outcomes are required to better understand how peer review of teaching supports teaching development. The growth of peer review of teaching within Australian higher education presents an important opportunity to advance our understanding of practices influencing academic teaching development.
The human dimension of good economic policymaking
(Economic Society of Australia (Queensland) Inc., 2020-12)
Good economic policymaking requires the best possible economic advice. To be an effective adviser, a policy economist needs to remain credible, even under pressure. There is a gap between theory and reality; minding the gap can help policy economists determine which theories are more likely to work as a matter of practical policymaking. Adding the human dimension makes for better decisions by casting light on how people might respond to otherwise rational policy proposals. It is not sufficient for good policy outcomes that economists confer only with their professional peers. Citizens must be persuaded that the proposed policy reform is in the best interests of the community as a whole. Good economic policymaking should not underestimate the power of incentives to override moral and ethical restraint. Regulation is a poor substitute for culturally-embedded moral restraint. While it is possible to divorce the mechanical side of economics from its moral foundations, this is not the route to good economic policymaking.
Do economics academics recognise employability skills and incorporate them into their courses?
(The University of Queensland, School of Economics, 2020-11-01)
Although previous studies have investigated economics curriculum reform to ensure economics graduates ‘think like economists’, it is unclear to what extent and how university economics teachers (academics) respond to the expectation that employability skills development is included in teaching and assessment practice. This paper reports the findings of an exploratory pilot study that investigated economics academics’ views and experience of employability skills integration. Drawing on interview data, content analysis of curriculum documents and observations of teaching and assessment practice, the findings indicate that while a common understanding and opinion of employability skills is held, tensions in practice exist: the teaching and assessment of employability skills is an individual decision, influenced by academic position and experience, and tempered by traditional expectations of a focus on discipline content.
APOE and BDNF polymorphisms moderate amyloid beta-related cognitive decline in preclinical Alzheimer's disease
(NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2015-11-01)
Accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain is associated with memory decline in healthy individuals as a prelude to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Genetic factors may moderate this decline. We examined the role of apolipoprotein E (ɛ4 carrier[ɛ4(+)], ɛ4 non-carrier[ɛ4(-)]) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF(Val/Val), BDNF(Met)) in the extent to which they moderate Aβ-related memory decline. Healthy adults (n=333, Mage=70 years) enrolled in the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle study underwent Aβ neuroimaging. Neuropsychological assessments were conducted at baseline, 18-, 36- and 54-month follow-ups. Aβ positron emission tomography neuroimaging was used to classify participants as Aβ(-) or Aβ(+). Relative to Aβ(-)ɛ4(-), Aβ(+)ɛ4(+) individuals showed significantly faster rates of cognitive decline over 54 months across all domains (d=0.40-1.22), while Aβ(+)ɛ4(-) individuals showed significantly faster decline only on verbal episodic memory (EM). There were no differences in rates of cognitive change between Aβ(-)ɛ4(-) and Aβ(-)ɛ4(+) groups. Among Aβ(+) individuals, ɛ4(+)/BDNF(Met) participants showed a significantly faster rate of decline on verbal and visual EM, and language over 54 months compared with ɛ4(-)/BDNF(Val/Val) participants (d=0.90-1.02). At least two genetic loci affect the rate of Aβ-related cognitive decline. Aβ(+)ɛ4(+)/BDNF(Met) individuals can expect to show clinically significant memory impairment after 3 years, whereas Aβ(+)ɛ4(+)/BDNF(Val/Val) individuals can expect a similar degree of impairment after 10 years. Little decline over 54 months was observed in the Aβ(-) and Aβ(+) ɛ4(-) groups, irrespective of BDNF status. These data raise important prognostic issues in managing preclinical AD, and should be considered in designing secondary preventative clinical trials.
Transcribing accounting lectures: Enhancing the pedagogical practice by acknowledging student behaviour
(Elsevier BV, 2021-03)
This study investigated how students demonstrated their use and need for lecture capture transcripts. Lecturers and students from two accounting subjects (i.e., a large first-year introductory class and a smaller graduate seminar series) participated. Students’ stated how they used and needed the transcripts and these statements about behaviors were mapped to Blooms Taxonomy and Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Findings focussed on how lecture transcripts influenced the learning process for students and suggested that the design of courses and student characteristics do not negatively influence how students use these transcripts. Implications for the value of transcripts to a students’ learning process is outlined with practical guides on how they can enhance pedagogical delivery while acknowledging the academic workload.
Amyloid β-associated cognitive decline in the absence of clinical disease progression and systemic illness.
INTRODUCTION: High levels of amyloid β (Aβ) are associated with cognitive decline in cognitively normal (CN) older adults. This study investigated the nature of cognitive decline in healthy individuals who did not progress to mild cognitive impairment or dementia. METHOD: Cognition was measured over 72 months and compared between low (Aβ-) and high (Aβ+) CN older adults (n = 335) who did not progress to mild cognitive impairment or dementia and who remained free of severe or uncontrolled systemic illness. RESULTS: Compared to the Aβ- group, the Aβ+ group showed no cognitive impairment at baseline but showed substantial decline in verbal learning, episodic memory, and attention over 72 months. DISCUSSION: Moderate cognitive decline, particularly for learning and memory, was associated with Aβ+ in CN older adults in the absence of clinical disease progression and uncontrolled or serious comorbid illness.
Replacing Corporate Income Tax with a Cash Flow Tax
We design a parsimonious cash flow tax for Australia and estimate revenue effects. It allows immediate deduction of all capital expenditures, denies deductions of interest payments, and compensates negative cash flows at the same rate and time as it taxes positive cash flows. It allows taxpayer timing choice on implementation over 10 years. It has incentive effects comparable to lowering the corporate income tax rate to zero. It removes distortions that artificially favour debt over equity, short‐ over long‐term investments, rents over competitive returns, large, established over small and new businesses, and conventional over innovative investments. It closes international tax evasion loopholes. Its spur to investment and timing of revenue impacts favours implementation in recession.
Rates of age- and amyloid β-associated cortical atrophy in older adults with superior memory performance.
Introduction: Superior cognitive performance in older adults may reflect underlying resistance to age-associated neurodegeneration. While elevated amyloid β (Aβ) deposition (Aβ+) has been associated with increased cortical atrophy, it remains unknown whether "SuperAgers" may be protected from Aβ-associated neurodegeneration. Methods: Neuropsychologically defined SuperAgers (n = 172) and cognitively normal for age (n = 172) older adults from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle study were case matched. Rates of cortical atrophy over 8 years were examined by SuperAger classification and Aβ status. Results: Of the case-matched SuperAgers and cognitively normal for age older adults, 40.7% and 40.1%, respectively, were Aβ+. Rates of age- and Aβ-associated atrophy did not differ between the groups on any measure. Aβ- individuals displayed the slowest rates of atrophy. Discussion: Maintenance of superior memory in late life does not reflect resistance to age- or Aβ-associated atrophy. However, those individuals who reached old age without cognitive impairment nor elevated Aβ deposition (i.e. Aβ-) displayed reduced rates of cortical atrophy.
Reducing inequities in early childhood mental health: How might the neighborhood built environment help close the gap? a systematic search and critical review
(MDPI AG, 2019-05-01)
Background: Optimal mental health in early childhood is key to later mental health, physical health, education, and social outcomes; yet, children facing disadvantage tend to have worse mental health and fewer opportunities to develop this foundation. An emerging body of research shows that neighborhoods provide important opportunities for the development of children’s mental health. Synthesizing this evidence can advance understandings of the features of the neighborhood built environment (e.g., housing, parks) that (1) promote optimal mental health in childhood and (2) reduce mental health inequities. Methods: We systematically searched and critically reviewed the international quantitative literature investigating associations between the neighborhood built environment and young children’s mental health. Results: 14 articles met inclusion criteria; most examined nature or public open space. Studies tended to find greater access to or quantity of neighborhood nature or public open space were associated with better mental health. Significant gaps included a lack of studies investigating social infrastructure, and few studies examined how the built environment related to positive mental health (i.e., functioning, rather than problems). Conclusions: Current evidence suggests there is some relationship, but additional research is needed that addresses these gaps and examines differences in associations between child subgroups (e.g., diverse socioeconomic backgrounds).
Harvesting from “Poor Old” China to Harness “Poor Young” Africa’s Demographic Dividend?
(International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development, 2018-07-05)
As China’s four-decade long demographic dividend is coming to an end, the country is actively seeking to seize new economic opportunities in higher-value-added productive activities. Could Africa be the big winner of this economic restructuring?
Africa, and China’s One Belt, One Road initiative: Why now and what next?
(International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development, 2016)
China’s growing outbound investment ambitions could be as transformative for today’s poor countries as inbound investment was for China. This will depend upon how recipient developing economies, in particular in Africa, utilise China’s investor interest for their own sustainable development.
The student as customer and quality in higher education
This paper explores some management concepts and how applying these concepts from business to higher education can be problematic, let alone incompatible, particularly in relation to measuring quality in higher education. A number of compelling reasons for this are explored. It discusses that the current bases for perceiving quality such as meeting customer expectations, satisfying the customer, ensuring quality control, meeting standards and assessing the costs associated with poor quality are in disagreement with the principal aims and measures of quality in higher education. Some considerations for understanding quality in higher education are proposed such as when thinking about quality of teaching, quality of programs and quality of the student experience. These considerations aim to refocus education to centre on the student as a learner and an active participant in the learning process.
Critical thinking in business education: current outlook and future prospects
(ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2020-02-05)
This study investigates all available literature related to critical thinking in business education in a survey of publications in the field produced from 1990–2019. It conducts a thematic analysis of 787 articles found in Web of Science and Google Scholar, including a specific focus on 55 highly-cited articles. The aim is to investigate the importance of critical thinking in business education, how it is conceptualised in business education research, the business contexts in which critical thinking is situated, and the key and more marginal themes related to critical thinking outlined in the business and business education literature. The paper outlines six key areas and topics associated with those areas. It suggests future directions for further scholarly work in the area of critical thinking in business education.
Mapping international business and international business policy research: Intellectual structure and research trends
This paper analyzes the core international business (IB) areas covered by ten IB-focused journals to date using 13,937 documents reflecting more than 300 years of combined publication history. Using bibliometric and citation analysis, it provides a systematic understanding of the current IB landscape, explicates the relevance of the future of IB research and depicts trends in this research field with emerging prevalent themes identified. The strongest themes across IB journals are performance, perspective and emerging economies/MNEs, shared strongly across UK/Europe, US and Asia-based journals. Our findings report on the prevalent research field, economy and geography, the latter analyzing the impact of author numbers and distribution, and thus, scale effects. Within this context, sole authorships are largely replaced by co-authorships, yet often on national level. We further limited the study to IB policy and found the focus centers on key themes of foreign business attraction, transnational governance and IB promotion.
Experiments and evaluation of public policies: Methods, implementation, and challenges
Evidence-based policymaking is all about developing and implementing better public policies. Although the logic underpinning this philosophy is simple, the practicalities of demonstrating causal effects of a public policy are much more complex. In recent years, there has been a wave of optimism about the usefulness of experimental approaches to public policy evaluation which mimics the clean, causal inferences observed in clinical trials. Although these methods, such as randomised controlled trials, have been widely advocated and implemented, they are not without their potential problems. In this paper, we consider the strengths, weaknesses, and challenges posed by the revolution in policy evaluation brought about by embracing experimental methods.
The Economic Demography Transition: Is China's ‘Not Rich, First Old’ Circumstance a Barrier to Growth?
Around 1980 China adopted a reformist economic agenda and a restrictive population policy. China's consequential ‘getting old before rich’ discourse is herein advanced into the ‘economic demography transition’ and economic demography matrix (EDM). EDM transition analysis of 182 economies from 1996 to 2016 identifies: i) China to be one of many ‘poor‐old’ economies; and ii) a majority of countries recently entering the high‐income group were first old. These results question China's 1980 s‐based fears that early demographic transition would stall development and also call for enhanced nuance in understanding economic and demographic change links.
Australasian Journal of Philosophy 1947–2016: a retrospective using citation and social network analyses
(Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2019)
In anticipation of the journal’s centenary in 2027 this paper provides a citation network analysis of all available citation and publication data of the Australasian Journal of Philosophy (1923–2017). A total of 2,353 academic articles containing 21,772 references were collated and analyzed. This includes 175 articles that contained author-submitted keywords, 415 publisher-tagged keywords and 519 articles that had abstracts. Results initially focused on finding the most published authors, most cited articles and most cited authors within the journal, followed by most discussed topics and emerging patterns using keywords and abstracts. The analysis then proceeded to apply social network analysis using Kumu© – a visualization platform for mapping systems and relationships using large datasets. Analysis reveals topic clusters both unique to the journal, and inclusive of the journal’s history. Results from this analysis reaffirm the journal’s continuing focus on topics in traditional analytic philosophy such as morality, epistemology and knowledge, whilst also featuring topics associated with logic and paradox. This paper presents a new approach to analysing and understanding the historic and emerging topics of interest to the journal, and its readership. This has never previously been done for single philosophy journal. This is historically important given the journal’s forthcoming centenary.
Journal of Behavioral Finance in retrospect: A review of its publications as a case in behavioral finance
(Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2019-01-01)
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact and contribution of the Journal of Behavioral Finance (JBF). Design/methodology/approach It uses the metadata from 328 journal articles (2004–2017) extracted from Scopus and Web of Science. The data included 2,602 author-submitted keywords, 1,825 index keywords and 310 abstracts. Findings Results indicate that JBF is still a young journal with 196 academic articles cited by 372 documents. Most citations come from JBF itself and the Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Finance. Mesly and Seiler are the most published, University of Gothenberg has more contributions than any other institution while the USA, Australia and UK represent nearly half of those citations. Investment policy is the most used author keyword next to behavioural finance, while risk is the most used index keyword. The most commonly used words in abstracts are investor or investors. The implications of and for JBF are discussed. Originality/value It is a unique and novel approach to analysing almost the entire publication history of the journal by using citation analysis.
Assessing and assuring learning: university teachers’ reflections on effectively addressing skills deficits in business studies
Using data from a business school in a large research-intensive university in Australia, this study analyzes proposed teaching and learning changes with a focus on ‘closing the loop.’ Aspects of teaching and learning submitted by academic staff following assurance of learning (i.e. curriculum improvements) were analyzed using content analysis, spanning 382 program learning outcomes, 25 different degree programs, 117 subjects and 5828 pieces of individual student assessment (2009–2017). Analysis revealed six learning outcome themes, with ‘use, application and evaluation of relevant theories, methods concepts, ideas or models’ as most prominent. Suggested actions on each of the themes relate to various curricula changes, particularly (1) the move from teaching students ‘what to think’ to ‘how to think,’ (2) from developing fundamental to complex skills, and (3) providing more opportunities for feedback. Broader implications for teaching practice are discussed.
Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 1973–2018: an analytical retrospective
(Springer Nature, 2019)
This paper analyses the entire publication history of the Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science (JAMS) by analyzing 1747 documents from 1973 to June 2018. Citation networks were examined from available metadata such as author and index keywords, and institutional affiliations, and abstracts were analyzed using network analysis and text mining techniques. The analysis is supported by the use of data visualization tools and community detection algorithms. Results suggest three main communities addressed throughout JAMS’ publication history (firm capability and performance, brand and value co-creation and customer service) and nine main themes (brands’ strategic value, firms’ strategy and financial performance, customer service, sales, marketing communications, retailing, distribution channel, global markets, and corporate social responsibility). Although empirical quantitative studies account the larger type of research published by JAMS, results also highlight JAMS’ contribution to marketing theory building and methodological issues in the shape of both conceptual/theoretical papers and scale development papers.
Leading from the Frontline: Developing Leader Identity and Leadership Self-Efficacy among Frontline Managers.
(Centre for Workplace Leadership, The University of Melbourne, 2016)
Frontline managers are responsible for the supervision of non-managerial employees and overseeing day-to-day operations in general. They are often directly involved in employee recruitment, training, and performance management and are critical to implementing practices and innovations that enhance productivity (Ahmed, Shields, White, & Wilbert, 2010; Brewer, 2005; Kraut, Pedigo, McKenna, & Dunnette, 1989; Purcell & Hutchinson, 2007; Risher, 2010). Frontline managers in the service industry are no exception, and should receive more attention as the service industry expands. We therefore designed a research study based in a large organisation in the food service industry. Through this study, we sought to understand what factors relate to the important concepts of leader identity and leadership self-efficacy at the frontline. We first provide some background on these concepts, as well as a number of potential determinants. We then describe the methodology of our study, followed by the findings and their implications.
Workplace Gender Equality Strategy Project - Final Report
(Centre for Workplace Leadership, University of Melbourne, 2015)
Progress towards workplace gender equality is a national priority. For Australian organisations, closing the gender gap and maximising the potential of both male and female employees is crucial for increasing productivity and securing future growth. The Workplace Gender Equality Agency’s (WGEA’s; 2014) gender equality indicators have found that while 45% of Australian employers have policies on flexible work, and family and caring responsibilities, only about 13% have a strategy for implementing such policies. Over half of organisations have a standalone gender equality policy, but only 7% have a gender equality strategy. Women’s representation is low at management levels, with women comprising around 26% of the top three layers of the management hierarchy in Australian organisations with 100 or more employees. Pursuit of flexible work practices and promotion of gender equity needs to be implemented in a more strategic, integrated and sustainable way in order to have real effect at the workplace level.
Developing Leaders in Business Schools: A Case Report on First Year Student Leaders
(Centre for Workplace Leadership, The University of Melbourne, 2016)
Developing leadership capabilities in young people comes with the territory of being in a business school. The Faculty of Business and Economics at The University of Melbourne offers a First Year Leaders Forum on a voluntary basis to all students. Centre for Workplace Leadership researchers surveyed two groups of first year students – those who took part in the Forum, and those that chose not to. The survey was administered immediately before the Forum and repeated six months later. Testing for four leadership competencies and two leadership attributes, they established that the intervention in the form of the Forum, improved first year students motivation to lead. Further they found that those who joined student groups or associations, volunteered or had served internships demonstrated higher levels of motivation to lead. The study showed that even small interventions can develop leadership attributes and as a result increase the levels of motivation to lead.
Creating a high performance leadership culture: The case of a leading Australian financial services firm
(Centre for Workplace Leadership, The University of Melbourne, 2016)
The Centre for Workplace Leadership was invited by a leading Australian financial services firm to conduct research on the firm’s capacity to adapt and innovate in a rapidly changing economic environment. The research took place between 2014 and 2016. It involved analysis of proprietary documents, surveys, and interviews with employees and managers from frontline business to senior managers, the executive team and board members. Key Findings: The analysis of the firm’s systems for innovation and decision-making found the following factors were affecting the firm’s ability to innovate. These were: • Employees’ shared commitment to a strong, values-based culture created a stable and rewarding informal culture; • However, the firm’s culture was a ‘double-edged sword’: although it was a major strength in building cohesion, it also tended to block innovation and change; • In particular, ‘bureaucratic brakes’ impeded the spread of internal innovation and development; • Strong risk aversion tended to be used defensively against the possibility of change; • Positive examples of innovation highlighted the need to develop better mechanisms for knowledge diffusion and organisational learning. Each of these findings is described in more detail in the report, along with quotes from the interviews.
Middle Managers - Leading for Performance The case of a major Australian retail business
(Centre for Workplace Leadership, The University of Melbourne, 2016)
The Centre for Workplace Leadership was invited by a major Australian retail business to conduct research on the company. The CEO wished to have a solid basis of evidence on which to improve communication, innovation and decisionmaking in the company. The research took place over a year between mid-2014 and mid-2015. It involved interviews with staff at all levels, from CEO to frontline business staff. Key Findings: The analysis of communication, innovation and decision-making processes found three main issues that were impacting organisational effectiveness. These were: • shifting to hierarchical leadership had reduced employee engagement; • increased bureaucracy had reinforced organisational silos; • top-down decision-making had crowded out collaboration and innovation. Each of these findings is described in more detail below, along with quotes from the interviews.
The Self-Reported Patent Quality of Chinese Firms: Motivation Source and Technology Accumulation Effects Analysis
(World Scientific Publishing, 2019-01-01)
Enhanced innovation capacity has become imperative to China’s growth and development. Patent quantity and quality indicators are benchmark measures of innovative capacity. This paper utilizes data from the 2013 Chinese Patent Survey to explore self-evaluated firm-level patent quality in China. Focus is placed on the effects of technological accumulation and also patent motivation on four multi-dimensional self-evaluation indices: technical quality, writing quality, right stability and market value. The results: (i) verify the proposal that in high patent intensity industries “strategic patent behavior will reduce patent quality”; (ii) suggest that reducing administrative-driven patent behaviors could improve patent quality (iii) and find patent structure but not quantity to be positively correlated with patent quality. This serves to enrich understanding of China’s patent system and the one-dimensional “inventive step” analysis deriving from analyses of European Patent Survey data.
Geographies of influence: a citation network analysis of Higher Education 1972-2014
This paper provides a citation network analysis of the publications of the journal Higher Education from 1972 to 2014 inclusive. This represents nearly the entire history of the journal. It analyses the most published authors and the most cited articles, as well as the most cited authors. This data includes the highest number of publications both by institution and country of origin. 2176 articles were taken from Web of Science™ as a source of primary data. These articles were found to have 68,009 references. Analysis was carried out using the Web of Science™ online analytics tool and Excel®. Gephi™, a data visualisation and manipulation software, was then used to provide visual representations of the associated citation networks. These representations were shown to constitute “terrains” of citations or “geographies of influence”—effectively bringing to bear empirical data in support of Macfarlane’s higher education research “archipelago”. Nationality biases were observed between US and UK/European/Australian higher education journals. Results indicate that the most published authors throughout the journal’s history are Meyer, Kember, Richardson, Enders and Prosser. Confirming earlier studies on UK and Australian journals, the five most cited authors are Entwistle, Clark, Marton, Biggs and Ramsden. The single most cited article is Clark’s 1983 Higher education system: academic organization in cross-national perspective. The top publication years for the journal were 2012, 2009 and 2011. Results from this paper shed light into the evolving concerns of the journal and its readership, and provide a demonstration of a powerful way of analysing citation data.
Who's citing whom and who's citing what?
Throughout history, the democratic nature of citation-making ensures that good ideas become central and less-worthy ideas become marginalised or dropped altogether. When that information is married with infographic maps, citation networks can provide concrete and illuminating representations of issues scholars regard as important over time.
The economics of and prospects for China’s Africa return
(Routledge - Taylor & Francis, 2018-04-18)
This handbook presents an extensive new overview of African development – past, present and future. It addresses key core themes and topics that are pertinent to the continent’s development – including sections on history, health and food, politics, economics, rural and urban development, and development policy and practice.
The intergenerational education spillovers of pension reform in China
(Springer (part of Springer Nature), 2018-07)
Economic theory establishes that pension privatization weakens the link between old and young and so reduces the incentive to invest in public education in an economy with lower return rate of capital than growth rate of wage. However, empirical studies of the link change are few. In this paper, we investigate the effects of pension privatization and the central government’s subsidy to individual accounts on public education spending in a three-period overlapping generation model. And then, we take contemporary pension reforms in a number of Chinese provinces as offering natural experiment conditions. Using a difference-in-difference framework and 282 municipal districts panel data over years 1998–2009, we test the pension-education theoretical link change. Both our theoretical and empirical results confirm that pension privatization is adversely associated with local public spending on education in China. Private pension subsidies, moreover, magnify this effect. Our study supports the theoretical assertion and selective empirical findings of a negative intergenerational effect of pension privatization.
Where Is the Chinese Economy Going?: A Forum on Contemporary Policy and Performance
(John Wiley & Sons, 2017-12-01)
China adopted a new model of growth from 2011, requiring substantial structural change. This introductory article presents statistical evidence on progress so far. Change generally is in the required direction, but slow. There has been early but slow progress on re-orienting domestic demand towards consumption; substantial re-orientation from reliance on exports towards domestic demand; and rapid change at the margin in the energy mix towards low-emissions sources. Investment in human capital is proceeding rapidly along lines required by the new model. So far, productivity growth has been slow, raising questions about future progress.
Footnotes on JIBS 1970–2016
(Springer Nature, 2017-12)
These footnotes on the Journal of International Business Studies (JIBS) 1970–2016 are intended to introduce the journal to scholars outside the international business (IB) discipline. The footnotes include a brief citation and keywords analysis. The citation analysis in the first part highlights the key players and key references in the IB field, and it celebrates the rich history of JIBS itself. The second part discusses the main subject matter addressed in refereed JIBS articles, through an analysis of keywords. These footnotes are timely as the journal nears 50 years of publication excellence, and an increasing interest in IB phenomena can be witnessed in a variety of management disciplines. We describe the intellectual shoulders upon which authors of future publications in JIBS, as well as designers of new IB curricula can stand.
Guest Editors' Introduction: Technological disruption and the future of employment relations
(Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2017-12-01)
A technological paradigm shift is underway. Nearly every day, we learn about another major technological breakthrough that promises to have life-changing effects. Driverless vehicles are taking to our roads. Drones are appearing in the sky. Surgeries are conducted by robots with little human assistance. And sophisticated predictive algorithms are ‘optimising’ what we see, mediating our contact with information and people in increasingly important ways.
Should we take the gig economy seriously?
(Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2017-12-01)
The ‘gig economy’ has emerged rapidly as a form of service delivery that challenges existing business models, labour-management practices, and regulations. The ways in which platform companies transact with workers, in particular, has created a burgeoning public interest, but has yet to give rise to a corresponding academic literature. In this paper, we ask whether the gig economy deserves to be a subject of employment relations scholarship, given its current dimensions and likely future. We argue that academic analysis is needed, to better understand the power dynamics operating within the gig economy and how these are testing existing norms and institutions. We discuss two mains ways that employment relations researchers can expand their theoretical repertoires and, in doing so, improve the evidence on gig-based working arrangements. We begin to sketch the outlines of a systematic research agenda, by elaborating indicative questions that need addressing to advance understanding of ‘gig work relations’. We caution, however, that academic analysis of the gig economy should not be predicated on an expectation that it is the future of work. A number of economic, industrial and political factors threaten to slow or halt the gig economy’s growth.
The “celebrities” in finance: a citation analysis of finance journals
(Emerald Group Publishing Ltd., 2017-01-01)
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the ten highly ranked journals in finance, and identify the most published authors, most cited articles, top publishing countries, top publishing universities, top publication years and the most discussed topics using keywords. Design/methodology/approach: Using the services of the Web of Science™ (WoS), all the available data about each journal’s published articles were extracted. A total of 6,029 articles containing 23,521 keywords and 208,905 cited references were analysed. Findings: Results indicate that Viscusi, Chemmanur and Statman are the most published authors. The most cited article is Fama and French’s (1993) article – Common risk factors in the returns on stocks and bonds – with 522 citations. The most cited author is Eugene Fama with 2,848 citations followed by Michael Jensen with 1,367 citations. USA and England contributed more articles than any other country, where US University of California System ranked first. “Information”, “risk” and “market” were the most discussed topics. Findings from this study reveal not only the popular authors, articles and topics in the scholarly finance literature, but also the lesser-known areas of research, which may need attention. Originality/value: It is the first large-scale citation analysis study of its kind, representing data from 178 years of combined publication history.
Models for supplier selection and risk mitigation: A holistic approach
(Taylor & Francis, 2018)
According to a study conducted by PwC and the Business Continuity Institute in 2013, 75% of companies experience at least one major supply chain disruption a year and majority of the disruptions were caused by supply-related problems. With an increasing emphasis on upstream risk, risk management in supplier selection has become a critical issue faced by companies. Although previous studies proposed different methods and tools for effective and efficient supplier selection, only few approaches have attempted to incorporate risk mitigation strategies in supplier selection decisions. Our study aims to fill this gap by considering a wide range of quantitative and qualitative risk factors in supplier selection and evaluates the efficacy of alternative risk mitigation strategies in this context. Moreover, we suggest that both upstream and downstream strategies should be utilised simultaneously rather than relying on a single type of strategy. We further suggest that it is critical to align upstream and downstream risk mitigation strategies to reduce risk. We employ multi-objective optimization-based simulation in developing a decision model and consider data from an automotive parts manufacturer to demonstrate the application of our approach.
Implicit and explicit Motivated Self-Perception as hypothesis-driven self-construal
(Pergamon Press Ltd., 2017-10-01)
Motivated Self-Perception (MSP) facilitates the positive perception of the self via the endorsement of desirable characteristics, selective recall of autobiographical memories, and performance of desirable behaviour. Peters and Gawronski (2011) proposed a model of MSP as “hypothesis-driven” self-construal integrating implicit and explicit self-concepts, motivation, and autobiographical memory. The current study provides the first complete test of this model. One hundred and twenty-seven participants read a summary of a fictional study before completing measures of motivation, personality self-ratings, autobiographical memory, and implicit self-personality associations. Explicit self-concept, autobiographical memory, and the implicit self-personality association were affected by the manipulation, consistent with predictions. Results also revealed that implicit self-personality associations were predicted by motivation and autobiographical memory, providing evidence for the proposed model of MSP, and further evidence for the interconnectedness of implicit and explicit self-constructs. Finally, these results are interpreted as evidence for the effect of MSP-based self-enhancement across all levels of the self.
The long and winding road: Problems in developing capabilities in an undergraduate commerce degree
(Emerald Group Publishing Ltd., 2017-01-01)
The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of specific learning outcomes in an undergraduate commerce degree in a large research-intensive university in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: It uses data collected from assurance of learning activities as part of Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business accreditation. A total of 267 assessments were marked using nine different rubrics in nine different subjects. It assessed six learning outcomes. Findings: Results indicate that a number of skills deficits exist among commerce students’ application of mathematical tools, analysis of business issues or problems, demonstration and application of theories, models or concepts, describing alternative methods of analysis, and generating supported conclusions or solutions, and analysing the research of others. These findings tell us that there are a number of higher order thinking skills that students need to develop when they pursue a commerce degree. It also creates a challenge for universities to foster an environment where these skills are developed in the curriculum. Practical implications: The wider implications to higher education include a reconsideration of the purpose of the commerce degree, the importance of feedback from various stakeholders (e.g. alumni, employers) to inform the commerce curriculum, and the range of learning experiences that develop these skills. More importantly, this study has identified specific skills deficits across the broad generic skills embedded in the commerce degree. It can assist academic staff and program managers in planning for future curriculum improvements as they see fit in the context of their own commerce programs. Originality/value: This is a novel contribution in that it provides specific assessment of skills deficits in business undergraduate education.
Navigating the Unchartered Path to Shared Value at GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) in the Philippines
(IUP Publication, 2017)
GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), a multinational pharmaceutical company, has, for many years, produced a medicine for acute management of asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). It is predominantly marketed in a multi-dose inhaler canister that is generally unaffordable for the majority of people living in poorer countries. GSK has recently relaunched a single unit dose presentation of this medicine for acute management of asthma and in salbutamol capsule in an inhaler device as an affordable solution. In developing this product, the company has sought to generate social outcomes (in terms of improved healthcare outcomes for poor people, whilst making a profit on the sales of the product. Based in the Philippines and with salbutamol capsule in an inhaler device as the foci, this case provides a detailed account of the executive motivations and tactical challenges of pursuing a shared value strategy in the Philippines. The case provides students with an understanding of the macro context of operating in emerging markets and offers managerial insight and the strategic rationale of Creating Shared Value (CSV).
A global call for action to include gender in research impact assessment
Global investment in biomedical research has grown significantly over the last decades, reaching approximately a quarter of a trillion US dollars in 2010. However, not all of this investment is distributed evenly by gender. It follows, arguably, that scarce research resources may not be optimally invested (by either not supporting the best science or by failing to investigate topics that benefit women and men equitably). Women across the world tend to be significantly underrepresented in research both as researchers and research participants, receive less research funding, and appear less frequently than men as authors on research publications. There is also some evidence that women are relatively disadvantaged as the beneficiaries of research, in terms of its health, societal and economic impacts. Historical gender biases may have created a path dependency that means that the research system and the impacts of research are biased towards male researchers and male beneficiaries, making it inherently difficult (though not impossible) to eliminate gender bias. In this commentary, we - a group of scholars and practitioners from Africa, America, Asia and Europe - argue that gender-sensitive research impact assessment could become a force for good in moving science policy and practice towards gender equity. Research impact assessment is the multidisciplinary field of scientific inquiry that examines the research process to maximise scientific, societal and economic returns on investment in research. It encompasses many theoretical and methodological approaches that can be used to investigate gender bias and recommend actions for change to maximise research impact. We offer a set of recommendations to research funders, research institutions and research evaluators who conduct impact assessment on how to include and strengthen analysis of gender equity in research impact assessment and issue a global call for action.
Reporting requirements, targets, and quotas for women in leadership
Reporting requirements, targets, and quotas have been implemented in several countries to increase female representation in leadership. In three studies, we analyze the effectiveness of these strategies from a goal-setting perspective. Study 1 evaluates the relationship between reporting requirements and female representation on boards of directors with data from Fortune 500 companies from 1996 to 2015. Study 2 analyzes the association of reporting requirements, targets, and quotas with the representation of women on boards of directors of public companies across 91 countries. Study 3 evaluates the impact of targets and quotas for women in parliaments across 190 nations. The board diversity reporting directive introduced in the US was followed by an acceleration in the increase of female representation on boards of directors of Fortune 500 companies. Higher goals for women on boards of directors were related to higher female representation. Similarly, higher gender goals and strong enforcement mechanisms in parliaments were related to higher female representation.