Business & Economics Collected Works - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 99
The Demand and Supply of Esteem: An experimental analysis
(ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2021-12-01)
We use a laboratory experiment to identify some determinants of variation across individuals in the demand and supply of esteem. Some participants can choose, at a cost, buy ‘credits’ so as to appear to others to have a better performance on a real effort task than they really do: this purchase reflects esteem seeking. The provision of esteem, via a partner's feedback on performance, is also recorded. We find: (i) those with a low willingness to supply effort have a lower probability of purchasing credits, (ii) participants matched with low scoring partners buy more credits (iii) feedback is improved for those purchasing credits.
Assessing critical thinking in business education: Key issues and practical solutions
(Elsevier BV, 2021-11)
Developing critical thinking is an important goal in higher education and, more importantly, in business education. Yet, it is uncertain to what extent assessment influences students' critical thinking development and enhancement. This paper presents data from a study that applied a framework we developed to identify evidence of students’ ability to think critically and whether students face challenges at applying critical thinking. A sample of 100, 2000-word group reports from a masters business analysis subject were evaluated using a critical thinking assessment rubric. We followed this with a content analysis of 49 reports using our developed framework to identify the demonstration of critical thinking dispositions and abilities. The findings from both analyses indicate a difference between student reports on how critical thinking is demonstrated. Most importantly, our developed framework provides a novel way to analyse student reports that inform whether they demonstrate the specific components of critical thinking dispositions and abilities. The evaluation using our established framework enables us to offer practical suggestions that university instructors can use to address the issues and challenges raised that hinder critical thinking acquisition via assessment practice in business education.
Transcribing accounting lectures: Enhancing the pedagogical practice by acknowledging student behaviour
(Elsevier BV, 2021-03)
This study investigated how students demonstrated their use and need for lecture capture transcripts. Lecturers and students from two accounting subjects (i.e., a large first-year introductory class and a smaller graduate seminar series) participated. Students’ stated how they used and needed the transcripts and these statements about behaviors were mapped to Blooms Taxonomy and Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Findings focussed on how lecture transcripts influenced the learning process for students and suggested that the design of courses and student characteristics do not negatively influence how students use these transcripts. Implications for the value of transcripts to a students’ learning process is outlined with practical guides on how they can enhance pedagogical delivery while acknowledging the academic workload.
The Evolving Role of Internal Organization Development Offices in Higher Education: Perspectives from Australia and the United States
(Organization Development Network, 2021)
Internal organization development offices, scholars, and practitioners have an important role to play in helping organizations and their leaders navigate the ambiguity, complexity, and disruption posed by the COVID-19 pandemic and in helping them repair, recover, and reinvent for a post-pandemic future. Given the wide range of contemporary challenges and the need for leaders at levels of higher education to engage directly with these challenges, internal organiza¬tion development offices will need to straddle both operational and humanis¬tic imperatives. This article provides an overview of two internal organization development offices—one in Australia and one in the United States—and how these offices have evolved to best meet the short-term and long-term needs of university colleagues.
Assessing and assuring learning: university teachers’ reflections on effectively addressing skills deficits in business studies
Using data from a business school in a large research-intensive university in Australia, this study analyzes proposed teaching and learning changes with a focus on ‘closing the loop.’ Aspects of teaching and learning submitted by academic staff following assurance of learning (i.e. curriculum improvements) were analyzed using content analysis, spanning 382 program learning outcomes, 25 different degree programs, 117 subjects and 5828 pieces of individual student assessment (2009–2017). Analysis revealed six learning outcome themes, with ‘use, application and evaluation of relevant theories, methods concepts, ideas or models’ as most prominent. Suggested actions on each of the themes relate to various curricula changes, particularly (1) the move from teaching students ‘what to think’ to ‘how to think,’ (2) from developing fundamental to complex skills, and (3) providing more opportunities for feedback. Broader implications for teaching practice are discussed.
Loneliness and Profiles of Objective and Subjective Memory During Midlife
(Oxford University Press, 2020-12-16)
Abstract Loneliness is a risk factor for dementia, however it’s relationship with cognitive health during midlife is unclear. We evaluated whether loneliness was associated with profiles of objective and subjective memory in younger and middle-aged adults. Participants (aged 25 to 64 years) underwent an initial loneliness assessment, followed by 14-days of momentary (5 per day) cognitive assessments (objective memory) and daily ratings of memory (subjective memory). Cluster analysis was conducted using person-level means of objective and subjective memory. Three clusters were identified: (1) highest objective and subjective memory (9%); (2) lowest subjective but not objective memory (84%); (3) lowest objective but not subjective memory (7%).There was a trend for higher levels of loneliness in Cluster 2 relative to Clusters 1 and 3. Results suggest that loneliness is more closely related with subjective than objective memory during midlife and are informative for development of interventions targeting cognitive health. Part of a symposium sponsored by the Measurement, Statistics, and Research Design Interest Group.
Resilience to Loneliness Amongst Older Adults Living in the Bronx, NY, During the COVID-19 Pandemic
(Oxford University Press, 2020-12-16)
Abstract Older adults may be particularly vulnerable to experiencing loneliness as a result of stay-at-home and social distancing orders during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study evaluated change in loneliness following the COVID-19 outbreak, using a longitudinal design and a validated loneliness measure, in a well-characterized sample who are at heightened risk for COVID-19 due to both age and location. The study included n = 226 older adults aged 70-90 years old, living in the Bronx, New York City, who had completed the 3-item Loneliness Scale prior to and during the peak of the COVID-19 outbreak in New York City. There was no evidence of significant increases in mean loneliness from pre- to post-COVID-19 outbreak. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify risk and protective factors for change in loneliness during the COVID-19 outbreak, adjusting for pre-outbreak loneliness. Living alone, higher levels of education, greater worry about contracting the coronavirus, and limiting of daily exercise activities were risk factors for greater loneliness after the outbreak. In contrast, Black race, older age, greater social support and frequent social interactions via video call, all related to lower levels of loneliness after the outbreak.The outcomes of this study demonstrate substantial resilience among older adults to loneliness in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, and highlight key risk and protective factors that may play an important role in individual differences in loneliness as pandemic-driven isolation continues.
Approaches for Modeling of Intensive Longitudinal Data to Understand Cognitive Aging
(Oxford University Press, 2020-12-16)
Abstract Understanding age-related change in cognition and identification of pathological changes requires sensitive and valid measurement of cognitive performance across time. Technological advances, such as ambulatory assessment of cognition using smartphones, have enabled intensive longitudinal methods where data is collected with many measurements over time. Our research group has developed novel ambulatory assessments that provide reliable, sensitive, and ecologically valid measurement of cognition across multiple timescales; from momentary changes to change across years. This symposium will present a spectrum of approaches to analysis of intensive longitudinal data that can inform models of cognitive aging. All three presentations will draw on data from measurement burst studies that apply our ambulatory cognitive assessment methods in community-based samples (i.e., systematically recruited in the Bronx, New York). For each measurement burst, participants undergo assessment consisting of brief surveys and cognitive tests via smartphone, up to 7 times per day across 14 days. Oravecz et al. will discuss the application of a Bayesian multilevel implementation of the double exponential model to account for retest effects while quantifying change in peak cognitive performance across time. Kang et al., will demonstrate a growth curve modeling approach for assessing the effects of between-person variables (i.e., loneliness) on change in cognition across measurement bursts. Harrington et al., will demonstrate a model-based cluster analysis approach, leveraging ambulatory assessments of subjective and objective cognitive function to unpack latent groups as a function of age and loneliness. Measurement, Statistics, and Research Design Interest Group Sponsored Symposium.
Loneliness and Cognitive Functioning Over Time: Using Ambulatory Cognitive Assessment
(Oxford University Press, 2020-12-16)
Loneliness has been investigated as a risk factor for cognitive health, but results were inconsistent. This study used three measurement bursts of ambulatory cognitive assessment to determine whether loneliness affects longitudinal changes in cognitive functioning in daily life. At each burst, participants performed cognitive assessment five times a day for 14 days. 138 adults (Mage=49.4) who completed all three bursts were included in this study. Growth curve modeling showed that, on average, scores of cognitive functioning were improved across a 2 year period (p&lt;.001). The chronic lonely group (in the highest tertile at all 3 bursts) showed less improvement in scores compared to non-lonely people (p&lt;.01), although there was no difference in cognitive functioning at the baseline between two groups. This study indicates that we need a repeated measurement of cognitive functioning and longitudinal approach to detect the effect of chronic loneliness on the rate of cognitive change. Part of a symposium sponsored by the Measurement, Statistics, and Research Design Interest Group.
The Web-Based Uprise Program for Mental Health in Australian University Students: Protocol for a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
(JMIR PUBLICATIONS, INC, 2020-12-01)
BACKGROUND: University students are vulnerable to poor mental health, psychological distress, and loneliness relative to nonuniversity student peers. However, the rate of seeking mental health treatment among university students is low. Web-based psychological interventions may provide an opportunity for supporting vulnerable university students who are unlikely to otherwise seek support. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine the feasibility, acceptability, safety, and efficacy of an existing web-based transdiagnostic cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) mental health program for use among Australian university students. METHODS: This is a pilot randomized controlled trial comparing a self-directed web-based CBT mental health program with a waitlist control. The self-directed modules will be augmented with optional webchat or telephone coaching with a therapist. The recruitment target is 70 university students who do not present with a clinical mental health disorder. Allocation will be made in a 1:1 ratio and will occur after the initial baseline assessment. Assessments will be completed at baseline, upon completion of a 4-week waitlist (waitlist group only), upon completion of the program, and at 3 months after completion of the program. RESULTS: The trial was funded in June 2018, and the protocol was approved by the Swinburne University Human Research Ethics Committee in September 2018. Recruitment commenced in October 2018, with the first participant allocated in November 2018. A total of 70 participants were recruited to the trial. The trial recruitment ceased in June 2019, and data collection was finalized in December 2019. We expect the final data analysis to be completed by November 2020 and results to be published early in 2021. The primary outcomes are feasibility, acceptability, safety, and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. The secondary outcomes are psychological wellbeing, quality of life, loneliness, self-reported physical health status, emotion regulation, and cognitive and mindfulness processes. CONCLUSIONS: The acceptability, feasibility, safety, and efficacy of a web-based mental health program in university students will be evaluated. Web-based mental health programs offer the opportunity to engage university students who may be reluctant to seek support through traditional face-to-face mental health services, and the transdiagnostic approach of the program has the potential to address the breadth of mental health concerns of university students. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ACTRN12618001604291; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?ACTRN=12618001604291. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/21307.
The human dimension of good economic policymaking
(Economic Society of Australia (Queensland) Inc., 2020-12)
Good economic policymaking requires the best possible economic advice. To be an effective adviser, a policy economist needs to remain credible, even under pressure. There is a gap between theory and reality; minding the gap can help policy economists determine which theories are more likely to work as a matter of practical policymaking. Adding the human dimension makes for better decisions by casting light on how people might respond to otherwise rational policy proposals. It is not sufficient for good policy outcomes that economists confer only with their professional peers. Citizens must be persuaded that the proposed policy reform is in the best interests of the community as a whole. Good economic policymaking should not underestimate the power of incentives to override moral and ethical restraint. Regulation is a poor substitute for culturally-embedded moral restraint. While it is possible to divorce the mechanical side of economics from its moral foundations, this is not the route to good economic policymaking.
Replacing Corporate Income Tax with a Cash Flow Tax
We design a parsimonious cash flow tax for Australia and estimate revenue effects. It allows immediate deduction of all capital expenditures, denies deductions of interest payments, and compensates negative cash flows at the same rate and time as it taxes positive cash flows. It allows taxpayer timing choice on implementation over 10 years. It has incentive effects comparable to lowering the corporate income tax rate to zero. It removes distortions that artificially favour debt over equity, short‐ over long‐term investments, rents over competitive returns, large, established over small and new businesses, and conventional over innovative investments. It closes international tax evasion loopholes. Its spur to investment and timing of revenue impacts favours implementation in recession.