Economics - Research Publications

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    Effects of a maternal psychosocial intervention on hair derived biomarkers of HPA axis function in mothers and children in rural Pakistan
    Baranov, V ; Frost, A ; Hagaman, A ; Simmons, JG ; Manzoor, MS ; Biroli, P ; Bhalotra, S ; Rahman, A ; Sikander, S ; Maselko, J (Elsevier BV, 2022-12)
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    Modeling time varying risk of natural resource assets: Implications of climate change
    Leroux, AD ; Martin, VL ; St John, KA (WILEY, 2022-01-01)
    A multivariate GARCH model of natural resources is specified to capture the effects of time varying portfolio risk. A special feature of the model is the inclusion of realized volatility for natural resource assets that are available at multiple frequencies as well as being sensitive to sudden changes in climatic conditions. Natural resource portfolios under climate change are simulated from bootstrapping schemes as well as being derived from global climate model projections. Both approaches are applied to a multiasset water portfolio model consisting of reservoir inflows, rainwater harvesting, and desalinated water. The empirical results show that while reservoirs remain the dominant water asset, adaptation to climate change involves increased contributions from rainwater harvesting and more frequent use of desalinated water. It is estimated that climate change increases annual water supply costs by between 7% and 44% over a 20‐year forecast horizon.
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    No Influence of Age-Related Hearing Loss on Brain Amyloid-beta
    Sarant, JZ ; Harris, DC ; Busby, PA ; Fowler, C ; Fripp, J ; Masters, CL ; Maruff, P ; Bendlin, B (IOS PRESS, 2022-01-01)
    BACKGROUND: Hearing loss is independently associated with a faster rate of cognitive decline in older adults and has been identified as a modifiable risk factor for dementia. The mechanism for this association is unknown, and there has been limited exploration of potential casual pathology. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate whether there was an association between degree of audiometrically measured hearing loss (HL) and brain amyloid-β (Aβ) in a pre-clinical sample. METHODS: Participants of the Australian Imaging and Biomarker Longitudinal Study (AIBL; n = 143) underwent positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and objective measurement of hearing thresholds within 5 years of imaging, as well as cognitive assessment within 2 years of imaging in this observational cohort study. RESULTS: With one exception, study participants who had cognitive assessments within 2 years of their PET imaging (n = 113) were classified as having normal cognition. There was no association between cognitive scores and degree of hearing loss, or between cognitive scores and Aβ load. No association between HL and Aβ load was found once age was controlled for. As previously reported, positive Apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) carrier status increased the risk of being Aβ positive (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Degree of HL was not associated with positive Aβ status.
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    Racial bias in newspaper ratings of professional football players
    Principe, F ; van Ours, JC (ELSEVIER, 2021-12-13)
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    Is it a fallacy to believe in the hot hand in the NBA three-point contest?
    Miller, JB ; Sanjurjo, A (Elsevier BV, 2021-09-01)
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    Behavioral Constraints on the Design of Subgame-Perfect Implementation Mechanisms
    Fehr, E ; Powell, M ; Wilkening, T (AMER ECONOMIC ASSOC, 2021-04-01)
    We study subgame-perfect implementation (SPI) mechanisms that have been proposed as a solution to incomplete contracting problems. We show that these mechanisms, which are based on off-equilibrium arbitration clauses that impose large fines for lying and the inappropriate use of arbitration, have severe behavioral constraints because the fines induce retaliation against legitimate uses of arbitration. Incorporating reciprocity preferences into the theory explains the observed behavioral patterns and helps us develop a new mechanism that is more robust and achieves high rates of truth-telling and efficiency. Our results highlight the importance of tailoring implementation mechanisms to the underlying behavioral environment. (JEL C92, D44, D82, D86, D91)
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    Labor market policies during an epidemic
    Birinci, S ; Karahan, F ; Mercan, Y ; See, K (Elsevier, 2021-02-01)
    We study the positive and normative implications of labor market policies that counteract the economic fallout from containment measures during an epidemic. We incorporate a standard epidemiological model into an equilibrium search model of the labor market to compare unemployment insurance (UI) expansions and payroll subsidies. In isolation, payroll subsidies that preserve match capital and enable a swift economic recovery are preferred over a cost-equivalent UI expansion. When considered jointly, however, a cost-equivalent optimal mix allocates 20 percent of the budget to payroll subsidies and 80 percent to UI. The two policies are complementary, catering to different rungs of the productivity ladder. The small share of payroll subsidies is sufficient to preserve high-productivity jobs, but it leaves room for social assistance to workers who face inevitable job loss.
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    Charitable Giving in the Laboratory: Advantages of the Piecewise Linear Public Goods Game
    Menietti, M ; Recalde, M ; Vesterlund, L ; Scharf, K ; Tonin, M (The MIT Press, 2018)
    The vast majority of US households make significant charitable contributions. When examining the effectiveness of the mechanisms fundraisers use to solicit such funds, it is often essential that researchers elicit or control the donor’s return from giving. While much can be gained from examining data on actual donations, insights on giving increasingly result from laboratory studies. An advantage of the laboratory is that it permits control of the donor’s return from giving and thus facilitates the identification of donor motives as well as their responses to different fundraising or solicitation strategies (see Vesterlund 2016 for a review).
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    When it Rains, it Pours: Estimating the Spatial Spillover Effect of Rainfall
    Hossain, F ; Ahsan, RN (SPRINGER, 2022-04-16)
    Abstract A large fraction of the world’s poor rely on rain-fed agriculture, which makes them vulnerable to changes in rainfall patterns. In this paper, we examine whether spatial correlation in rainfall results in these households also being vulnerable to an adverse spatial-spillover effect. In particular, we use household-level panel data from India along with high-resolution meteorological data to show how rural household consumption varies with own-region rainfall as well as rainfall in neighboring areas. We find that while greater own rainfall has a positive effect on rural household consumption, greater rainfall in neighboring regions has an adverse spatial-spillover effect. Our results suggest that when this spillover effect is taken into account, the positive impact of own-region rainfall on household consumption falls by 38 percent.
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    Mental health effects of same-sex marriage legalization
    Chen, S ; van Ours, JC (WILEY, 2021-10-09)
    Same-sex marriage legalization (SSML) is a typical anti-discrimination policy to remove institutional discrimination against sexual minorities by providing them with marriage equality. We examine how this legalization in the Netherlands affected mental health. Conducting a difference-in-differences analysis with heterosexual individuals as a reference group, we find that SSML significantly improved mental health of sexual minorities and substantially reduced the sexual orientation gap of mental health. The beneficial effects were present for both married and non-married sexual minorities. This phenomenon suggests that part of the health gains were related to mechanisms beyond marriage itself.