Economics - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 588
The value of communication and cooperation when servers are strategic
(Australian Mathematical Publishing Association, Inc., 2020-05-06)
In 2015, Guglielmi and Badia discussed optimal strategies in a particular type of service system with two strategic servers. In their setup, each server can be either active or inactive and an active server can be requested to transmit a sequence of packets. The servers have varying probabilities of successfully transmitting when they are active, and both servers receive a unit reward if the sequence of packets is transmitted successfully. Guglielmi and Badia provided an analysis of optimal strategies in four scenarios: where each server does not know the other’s successful transmission probability; one of the two servers is always inactive; each server knows the other’s successful transmission probability and they are willing to cooperate. Unfortunately, the analysis by Guglielmi and Badia contained some errors. In this paper we correct these errors. We discuss three cases where both servers (I) communicate and cooperate; (II) neither communicate nor cooperate; (III) communicate but do not cooperate. In particular, we obtain the unique Nash equilibrium strategy in Case II through a Bayesian game formulation, and demonstrate that there is a region in the parameter space where there are multiple Nash equilibria in Case III. We also quantify the value of communication or cooperation by comparing the social welfare in the three cases, and propose possible regulations to make the Nash equilibrium strategy the socially optimal strategy for both Cases II and III.
Harm reduction and "Clean" community: can Viet Nam have both?
The findings of our research show that while police play multiple roles in the fight against drug-related crime, they often perceived their tasks - especially preventing and controlling drug use on the one hand, and supporting harm reduction on the other - as contradictory, and this creates tensions in their work and relations with their communities. Although they are leaders and implementers of harm reduction, not all police know about it, and some remain skeptical or perceive it as contradictory to their main task of fighting drugs. Methadone treatment is seen by some as in competition with their main task of coordinating conventional drug treatment in the rehabilitation center.The history of drug use and the evolution of discourses on drug use in Viet Nam have created these conflicting pressures on police, and thus created contradictory expectations and led to different views and attitudes of police regarding various harm reduction measures. This might aid understanding why, despite the comprehensive and progressive policies on HIV/AIDS and harm reduction in Viet Nam, it is not easy for police to actively and effectively support and be involved in harm reduction at the ground level.To promote the wider acceptance of harm reduction the concept of community safety must be expanded to include community health; harm reduction must be integrated into the "new society" movement; and laws and policies need further revision to reduce contradiction between current drug laws and HIV laws.Harm reduction guidelines for police and other actors need to be disseminated and supported, embodying better ways of working between sectors, and all sectors in the partnership require support for building capacity to contribute to the overall goal.
Measurement of Intra-household Resource Control: Exploring the Validity of Experimental Measures
(International Food Policy Research Institute, 2020-12-01)
We study the validity of experimental methods designed to measure preferences for intra-household resource control among spouses in Ghana and Uganda. We implement two incentivized tasks; (1) a game that measures willingness to pay to control resources, and (2) private and joint dictator games that measure preferences for resource allocation and the extent to which those preferences are reflected in joint decisions. Behavior in the two tasks is correlated, suggesting that they describe similar underlying latent variables. In Uganda the experimental measures are robustly correlated with a range of household survey measures of resource control and women’s empowerment and suggest that simple private dictator games may be as informative as more sophisticated tasks. In Ghana, the experimental measures are not predictive of survey indicators, suggesting that context may be an important element of whether experimental measures are informative.
Gender Differences in Negotiation and Policy for Improvement
(National Bureau of Economic Research, 2020-12-01)
Men more than women succeed when negotiating over labor-market outcomes, and gender differences in negotiation likely contribute to the gender wage gap and to horizontal and vertical segregation in the labor market. We review the evidence on the many initiatives that have been put in place to reduce the effect of gender differences in negotiation. Categorizing these as either ‘fix-the-women’ or ‘fix-the-institutions’ initiatives we find serious challenges to the former. Women do not appear to be broken and encouraging them to negotiate more and differently often backfires. The evidence suggests that ‘fix-the-institution’ initiatives are more effective in reducing gender differences in outcomes. Concerns of adverse effects of banning negotiations or salary history requests have not materialized, and preliminary evidence points to reductions in the gender differences in negotiation outcomes. The strongest evidence on effectiveness in narrowing gender disparities is found for policies that increase transparency. Numerous studies find that gender differences in negotiation diminish when it is clear what to expect from the negotiation and suggest that initiatives which improve transparency are likely to help equalize opportunities at the bargaining table.
Modelling Mortality Dependence: An Application of Dynamic Vine Copula
Vine copula, constructed from bivariate copulas, provides great exibility in modelling complex high-dimensional dependence. When applied to multi- population mortality modelling, vine copula yields signi_cant improvement over traditional multivariate copulas. In this paper, we propose to capture time- varying features in mortality dependence with dynamic regular vine (R-vine) copula which is built from bivariate copulas with time-varying dependence pa- rameters. We develop two dependence dynamics for R-vine copulas and illustrate the selection and estimation of dynamic R-vine copulas using mortality data from eight populations. The estimated R-vine copulas using the proposed dependence dynamics are shown to yield better goodness of _t than both static and regime- switching vine copulas. We further demonstrate the simulation of mortality paths using dynamic R-vine copulas and examine the impact of vine copula choice on the assessed e_ectiveness of longevity hedge.
Early subjective completion beliefs and the demand for post-secondary education
We provide a comprehensive empirical analysis on the role of beliefs about the probability of completing post-secondary education, elicited before the end of secondary school, for students’ future education choices. Although there is substantial evidence on the relevance of subjective beliefs for returns to post-secondary education conditional on completion, there is little evidence linking early beliefs to the extensive margin of completing a degree. We exploit (i) a representative population sample which (ii) follows students over a long time horizon, two key features largely absent from the previous literature on subjective beliefs. We find that completion beliefs are mainly related to cognitive and non-cognitive skills, as opposed to family background or opportunities in the local labor market. Completion beliefs elicited before the end of secondary school are highly predictive for later key education outcomes, with a predictive accuracy comparable to an econometric model with perfect foresight. Assessing the heterogeneity of the relationship, our results imply that beliefs are most important for lower ability students and in times of tougher local labor markets.
feologit: A new command for fitting fixed-effects ordered logit models
(SAGE Publications, 2020-06)
In this article, we describe how to fit panel-data ordered logit models with fixed effects using the new community-contributed command feologit. Fixed-effects models are increasingly popular for estimating causal effects in the social sciences because they flexibly control for unobserved time-invariant heterogeneity. The ordered logit model is the standard model for ordered dependent variables, and this command is the first in Stata specifically for this model with fixed effects. The command includes a choice between two estimators, the blowup and cluster (BUC) estimator introduced in Baetschmann, Staub, and Winkelmann (2015, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A 178: 685–703) and the BUC- τ estimator in Baetschmann (2012, Economics Letters 115: 416–418). Baetschmann, Staub, and Winkelmann (2015) showed that the BUC estimator has good properties and is almost as efficient as more complex estimators such as generalized method-of-moments and empirical likelihood estimators. The command and model interpretations are illustrated with an analysis of the effect of parenthood on life satisfaction using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel. </jats:p>
Legalizing recreational cannabis use: a promising journey into the unknown
In order to evaluate the impact of the current legalization experiences, it is cru-cial to measure their efects both on public health and on users’ criminalization and contacts with illegal activities. The Uruguay-an cannabis regulation model is a middle-ground option between prohibition and commercialization, in which the govern-ment imposes strict regulations for users: mandatory registry, maximum amount of cannabis per user (40 g per month and 480 g per year), no advertisement, no selling to tourists, no edibles allowed. These restric-tions were planned to control consumption and accomplish the public health goal of the regulation.
The Samurai Bond: Credit Supply, Market Access, and Structural Transformation in Pre-War Japan
(Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2020-06-01)
While credit supply growth is associated with exacerbating financial crises, its impact on long-run growth is unclear. Market access similarly has ambiguous economic effects over time. Using regional variation in bond payments to samurai and the introduction of railways in nineteenth century Japan, we find that together they are associated with persistent redistributive effects between regions and sectors. Areas with higher bond value and railway access experienced tertiary sector growth and primary sector shrinkage, with analogous results in sectoral labor shares. This interaction between credit supply and market access facilitated structural transformation but had little long-run net growth impact.
On the Type I multivariate zero-truncated hurdle model with applications in health insurance
In the general insurance modeling literature, there has been a lot of work based on univariate zero-truncated models, but little has been done in the multivariate zero-truncation cases, for instance a line of insurance business with various classes of policies. There are three types of zero-truncation in the multivariate setting: only records with all zeros are missing, zero counts for one or some classes are missing, or zeros are completely missing for all classes. In this paper, we focus on the first case, the so-called Type I zero-truncation, and a new multivariate zero-truncated hurdle model is developed to study it. The key idea of developing such a model is to identify a stochastic representation for the underlying random variables, which enables us to use the EM algorithm to simplify the estimation procedure. This model is used to analyze a health insurance claims dataset that contains claim counts from different categories of claims without common zero observations.
Optimal implementation delay of taxation with trade-off for spectrally negative Lévy risk processes
(Springer Verlag, 2021)
In this paper we consider two cases of optimal implementation delay of taxation with trade-off under spectrally negative Lévy insurance risk processes. In the first case, we assume that the insurance company starts to pay tax only when its surplus level reaches a certain level, and at the termination time of the business there is a terminal value incurred to the company. A method is developed to determine the optimal starting-tax surplus level at which the total expected discounted value of all tax payments up to the termination time plus the discounted terminal value is maximized. In the second case, the company still pays tax subject to a starting-tax surplus level, but with capital injections to prevent bankruptcy. The total expected discounted value of tax payments minus the total discounted capital injection costs is maximized to determine the optimal starting-tax surplus level. Numerical examples are given at the end to illustrate the existence of positive optimal starting-tax surplus levels for both cases considered in this paper.
Integer game with delay
In this note, we study a version of a war of attrition, in which the players pick delays and the player with the longest delay wins. Unlike the war of attrition, all players have to experience the longest delay before the consumption takes place. We show that the game has no mixed strategy Nash equilibria. The game can be seen as a re-interpretation of the integer game, which is one of the most important and most criticized constructions in the full implementation literature. Unlike the integer game, it has a well-defined best response against any mixed strategy.