Delayed sleep onset in depressed young people
AuthorGlozier, Nicholas; O'Dea, Bridianne; McGorry, Patrick D.; Pantelis, Christos; Amminger, Gunter Paul; Hermens, Daniel F.; Purcell, Rosemary; Scott, Elizabeth; Hickie, Ian B.
Source TitleBMC PSYCHIATRY
PublisherBIOMED CENTRAL LTD
University of Melbourne Author/sMcGorry, Patrick; Pantelis, Christos; Amminger, Paul; Purcell, Rosemary
AffiliationCentre for Neuroscience
Document TypeJournal Article
Access StatusThis item is currently not available from this repository
Background: The circadian abnormality of delayed sleep phase has been suggested to characterise a subgroup of depressed young adults with different risk factors and course of illness. We aim to assess the prevalence and factors, particularly substance use, associated with such delay in a large help-seeking cohort of young people with mental health problems.Methods: From a consecutively recruited sample of 802 help-seeking young people, 305 (38%) had at least moderate depressive symptoms (QIDS-C-16 > 10), sleep data and did not have a chronic severe mental illness. Demographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated through self report and clinical interview. Delayed sleep phase was defined as a sleep onset between the hours of 02:00 a.m. - 06:00 a.m. and the characteristics of this group were compared to normal phase sleepers.Results: Delayed sleep onset was reported amongst 18% (n = 56/305) of the depressed group compared to 11% of the non-depressed young people. Amongst the depressed group, delayed sleep onset was associated with tobacco, alcohol and cannabis misuse and short sleep duration ((x) over bar: 5.8 hrs vs. (x) over bar: 7.8 hrs). There were no differences in demographic factors, personality traits or symptoms. Tobacco smoking was very common: In logistic regression analyses only tobacco use (OR 2.28, 95% CI: 1.04 - 5.01) was associated with delayed sleep onset. There was no interaction with age.Conclusions: Delayed sleep onset was twice as common in depressed young people as the general population and young people with other mental health problems, and is a potential marker for a subgroup of mood disorders. Those with delayed sleep onset were not more severely depressed but had short sleep duration, a risk for chronic psychological ill health, and higher levels of tobacco use. Nicotine use was common in this group, has biological evidence as a sleep disrupter, and requires specifically addressing in this population.
KeywordsPHASE SYNDROME; CIRCADIAN-RHYTHMS; CIGARETTE-SMOKING; MORNINGNESS-EVENINGNESS; PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS; PSYCHIATRIC-DISORDERS; ADOLESCENT SLEEP; SUBSTANCE USE; PRIMARY-CARE; ADULTS; PHASE SYNDROME; CIRCADIAN-RHYTHMS; CIGARETTE-SMOKING; MORNINGNESS-EVENINGNESS; PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS; PSYCHIATRIC-DISORDERS; ADOLESCENT SLEEP; SUBSTANCE USE; PRIMARY-CARE; ADULTS
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