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    Cenozoic History of the Indonesian Gateway
    Gallagher, SJ ; Auer, G ; Brierley, CM ; Fulthorpe, CS ; Hall, R (Annual Reviews, 2024-05-30)
    The tectonically complex Indonesian Gateway is part of the global thermohaline circulation and exerts a major control on climate. Waters from the Pacific flow through the Indonesian Archipelago into the Indian Ocean via the Indonesian Throughflow. Much progress has been made toward understanding the near-modern history of the Indonesian Gateway. However, the longer-term climate and ocean consequences of Australia's progressive collision with the Eurasian Plate that created it are less known. The gateway initiated ∼23 Ma, when Australia collided with Southeast Asia. By ∼10 Ma the gateway was sufficiently restricted to create a proto–warm pool. During the Pliocene it alternated between more or less restricted conditions, until modern oceanic conditions were established by 2.7 Ma. Despite its tectonic complexity, climate modeling and Indian and Pacific scientific ocean drilling research continue to yield insights into the gateway's deep history. ▪ The Indonesian Gateway is a key branch of global thermohaline oceanic circulation, exerting a major control on Earth's climate over the last the 25 Myr. ▪ We find that a complex interplay of tectonics and sea level has controlled Indonesian Gateway restriction since 12 Myr, resulting in La Niña– and El Niño–like states in the equatorial Pacific ▪ Long term Indonesian Gateway history is best determined from ocean drilling cores on the Indian and Pacific sides of the Indonesian Gateway, as records from within it are typically disrupted by tectonics. ▪ Model simulations show the global impact of the Indonesian Gateway. Further modeling with ocean drilling/tectonic research will enhance our understanding of Cenozoic Indonesian Gateway history. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Volume 52 is May 2024. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
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    Assessing the social life cycle impacts of circular economy
    Luthin, A ; Traverso, M ; Crawford, RH (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2023-02-01)
    A transition to a circular economy (CE) affects different stakeholders – positively and negatively. Social aspects still receive little consideration in the context of CE, which is why the assessment and monitoring of the social impacts of CE still require further development and consideration in research. In this context, social circularity indicators and social life cycle assessment (S-LCA) are important tools that were examined in more detail in this study. This paper aimed to assess the current state of social circularity indicators in the literature, the implementation of S-LCA to assess CE concepts, and which additional indicators might be included in future S-LCA studies. Focus will be on the methodological approach of how to assess the social impacts of CE. A systematic literature review was conducted using Scopus Database, Google Scholar, and Web of Science. The search terms were derived from the aim of the study to identify the social impacts of CE in existing literature, to compile relevant social indicators in the context of CE, and to analyze the current role of S-LCA in the assessment of CE concepts. 97 papers were found. After excluding contributions that did not match the search criteria and adding new relevant contributions found through the analysis of the identified studies with the snowball sampling approach, 40 papers were considered in the review. 40 social impacts of CE were found within the literature. About half of them were positive and the other half negative. The authors found that positive impacts for some stakeholders could imply negative consequences for others, e.g., job creation in one region might lead to a decline in job opportunities in other regions. To assess CE, 104 single social indicators and 9 composed indicators were identified. Most of them could be linked to stakeholder groups and subcategories proposed in the UNEP S-LCA guidelines (UNEP, 2020). Training and education, job creation, as well as health and safety were relevant identified indicators in the context of CE. S-LCA has rarely been used in the assessment of CE strategies so far and needs to be standardized for application in the industry. Not all social impacts of CE are addressed by existing indicators. This, and the fact that not all circularity indicators that address social consequences of CE (social circularity indicators) are covered with S-LCA, reveals the need to suggest and harmonize additional subcategories that are especially relevant for CE. The authors propose to apply and integrate the identified social circularity (inventory) indicators in future S-LCA studies to assess CE concepts.
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    Fifth-generation district heating and cooling systems: A review of recent advancements and implementation barriers
    Gjoka, K ; Rismanchi, B ; Crawford, RH (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2023-01)
    As global urbanisation levels continue to rise, supplying urban areas with low emissions energy becomes imperative in the fight against climate change. In areas with high demand density, district heating and cooling systems are generally a more efficient alternative compared to individual solutions, but current systems are mainly powered by fossil fuels and suffer from significant thermal losses due to high operating temperatures. Fifth-generation district heating and cooling systems (5GDHC) is a promising technology, able to address these drawbacks. 5GDHC systems operate at near ambient temperature, ensuring efficient integration of renewable energy sources and waste heat recovery potential. Their ability to provide simultaneous heating and cooling through the same pipeline and bidirectional energy flows allow for load balancing through the harvesting of demand synergies between different users. 5GDHC systems can play an important role in the energy transition but not much is known about their environmental performance over their life cycle and the novelty of the concept means that planning and design guidelines are scarcely present in the literature, hindering their development and further adoption. This study critically reviews recent advancements in the relevant literature as the 5GDHC technology transitions from research and development to the demonstration phase. Moreover, the paper addresses the design parameters and methodologies encountered in the literature for the modelling and operation of 5GDHC systems. Finally, the economic and environmental performance are discussed while presenting an overview of future developments and challenges related to full-scale deployment.
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    Integrating embodied greenhouse gas emissions assessment into the structural design of tall buildings: A framework and software tool for design decision-making
    Helal, J ; Stephan, A ; Crawford, RH (ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA, 2023-10-15)
    Urgent changes are needed in the construction industry to address the adverse effects of material production on the environment. The construction of tall buildings results in a high temporal and spatial concentration of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This is largely due to the compounding influence of wind and earthquake loads on structural material requirements. Thus, to meet short-term climate change mitigation goals, the structural design of tall buildings must consider and minimise the embodied GHG emissions of structural systems. This study aimed to develop a framework to inform the design of tall building structural systems in order to minimise their embodied GHG emissions. A software tool was developed to implement the framework and automate the design, analysis, and embodied GHG emissions assessment of structural systems for tall buildings. Approximately 1,000 building models were iteratively designed, analysed, and assessed using the software tool. Through regression analyses, the resulting dataset was used to construct predictive models for the embodied GHG emissions of 12 unique combinations of structural system typologies and materials. By applying the framework and software tool to a 52-storey case study building, it is estimated that optimising structural material choices and geometric design strategies could reduce the embodied GHG emissions of tall building structural systems by up to 20% compared to current practices. The developed framework and software tool allow designers to use environmental assessment as a design decision-making tool, rather than an appraisal method for evaluating completed buildings, helping to reduce the environmental effects associated with tall building construction.
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    Integrating life cycle assessment into the building design process-a review
    Prideaux, F ; Allacker, K ; Crawford, RH ; Stephan, A (IOP Publishing Ltd, 2024-06-01)
    Abstract The environmental effects associated with buildings are significant and include considerable contributions towards global greenhouse gas emissions, energy use, and waste generation. Until recently, mitigation efforts have concentrated on improving the operational energy efficiency of buildings, largely ignoring embodied environmental effects. However, focusing solely on increasing energy efficiency can inadvertently cause an rise in embodied effects. It is therefore critical that embodied effects are considered alongside operational effects and are actively integrated into design decisions throughout the building design process. Life cycle assessment (LCA) can be used to achieve this, however, it is often perceived as difficult to incorporate into design workflows, or requiring specialist knowledge. Additionally, it is not always clear how well aligned LCA approaches are with the building design process. To address this gap, this study aims to provide a detailed analysis of LCA approaches, to assess how well they align with building design stages, and to identify key characteristics, including LCA tools and environmental data used to conduct assessments. A review of academic and grey literature is conducted. Three primary approaches are identified for integrating LCA into the building design process: simplified, detailed and incremental LCA. Simplified LCA uses streamlined data inputs and typically targets a specific design stage. Detailed LCA follows a traditional approach with comprehensive user inputs and results. Incremental LCA progressively evolves the assessment based on design requirements and available building data at each design stage. An analysis of each approach is performed, and key user requirements are mapped against the early design, and detailed design stages. Results reveal that no single approach fully satisfies all design requirements. Findings also highlight a lack of incremental LCA approaches and challenges operationalising these techniques. These approaches often rely on complicated methods or tools not suitable for common design workflows, or they are in early development and require additional verification before implementation.
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    Towards a holistic assessment of circular economy strategies: The 9R circularity index
    Muñoz, S ; Hosseini, MR ; Crawford, RH (Elsevier BV, 2024-06-01)
    Our planet faces mounting environmental burdens due to linear production and consumption. Circular economy strategies offer a promising alternative, but evaluating their effectiveness requires robust measurement tools. Existing approaches lack a comprehensive framework incorporating the hierarchical strategies proposed by the 9R framework and the butterfly diagram. Based on the current circular economy indicators, this study gathers a set of indicators designed to assess the efficacy of circular economy strategies, considering the hierarchical levels outlined in the 9R framework. Moreover, it leverages the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) fundamental scale as an integration tool to consolidate the suggested indicators into a unified metric termed the “9R circularity index”. This approach relies on a bottom-up approach to measure circular economy at various levels. The “9R circularity index” enhances the ability to compare results from a material flow analysis perspective. In addition, this paper presents a step-by-step approach and a supporting software tool that aims to facilitate the measurement, selection and comparison between circular and linear models. Ultimately, this proposed approach offers a workable, data-driven tool to support the transition towards a circular economy.
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    Performance of self-binding engineered panels made from sweet corn stalks (Zea mays L.) for furniture applications
    Astari, L ; Belleville, B ; Ozarska, B ; Umemura, K ; Crawford, R ; Kusumaningrum, WB ; Ismayati, M (Elsevier BV, 2024-02-01)
    Particleboard manufacturers face challenges with conventional adhesives and the shortage of wood particles. This research aims to offer an alternative to particleboard raw materials and investigates the physico-mechanical properties of particleboard made from sweet corn stalks (Zea mays L.) and citric acid (CA), with a focus on its suitability for furniture applications. The targeted density of particleboard was 0.7 g/cm3 and the CA solution addition was in the range of 0–25 wt%. The results show that the addition of 15 wt% CA increased the physico-mechanical properties of the panel. The physico-mechanical properties of particleboard with the addition of 25 wt% CA met the requirements of JIS A 5908 (2022). Py-GC/MS analysis of corn stalk particles shows 62 derivative compounds. The FTIR analysis confirms the formation of ester linkages between the carboxyl group of CA and hydroxyl groups of corn stalk.
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    Enabling curriculum improvements to support foundational skills development
    Carew, P ; Swann, S ; Delgama, D ; Bone, E (Auckland University of Technology (AUT) Library, )
    Creating learner-centred curriculum (McLean & Gibbs, 2010) through design processes that incorporate students’ experiences and feedback can enable powerful and sustained impacts on student learning (Brooman et al., 2015). Principles of co-design have been used successfully in building technology-enhanced learning experiences (Gros & López 2016), including in the health science disciplines (O’Connor & Andrews, 2016; Treasure-Jones & Joynes, 2018).   Students in audiology programs are required to demonstrate competency in both technical micro-skills required to conduct accurate and reliable assessments and the use of reflective practice to evaluate and improve their clinical performance (Audiology Australia, 2022). As audiology student cohorts increase in size, there is a need to examine the efficacy of how teaching designed for smaller cohorts can best support learning within a larger student body.   This presentation describes our learnings across a process of enhancing the assessment and feedback mechanisms within a Master of Clinical Audiology program at a large, research-intensive university. Following a design-based learning framework (Reeves & McKinney, 2015), we first conducted an audit of existing learning and teaching materials, using focus groups with students to understand their interaction with these resources and comprehend the impact of existing assessment and feedback methodologies on their learning experiences. Students described their difficulties with navigating multiple learning resources in the core audiology technical domain of masking. Whilst acknowledging the significance of reflective practice for their future clinical roles, students also reported that the authenticity of development of their reflective practice skills was clouded by the existing learning task design.   Our objective in the design and development phase was to act upon this student feedback and implement technology-enabled alterations to learning, feedback and assessment practices that resonated with both students and educators, leading to enhanced engagement and comprehension of foundational course content. Key initiatives materialized throughout the project timeline, notably including pedagogical enhancements in the teaching and assessment within the reflective practice module. Drawing on student feedback and data analysis from focus groups, the 2023 syllabus was crafted to integrate a clearer progression of reflective practice skills development utilizing a learning arches framework. This framework facilitated the introduction of novel ePortfolio tools such as the Pebble Pocket app for on-placement reflections, refined PebblePad worksheets, and interactive Perusall social annotation activities, bolstering clarity and coherence in the reflective practice learning journey.   Simultaneously, a suite of learning assets was piloted in the latter half of 2023, underscoring a significant shift towards animation-based visual demonstrations and interactive resources aimed at solidifying audiology micro-skills acquisition. These assets focused on new instructional animations teaching audiology masking theory and techniques, interactive resources facilitating the comprehension of masking tables, and immersive clinical environments offering 360-degree views of audiology rooms. These resources helped prepare students for summative assessments in both written and clinical examination settings.   Following an iterative approach to educational innovation, guided by the principles of design-based learning and informed by the views and experiences of our students, we expect to continue developing and implementing transformative pedagogical strategies tailored to the dynamic needs of health professions education.
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