Business Administration - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 21
A Question of Ethics: Navigating Ethical Failure in the Banking and Financial Services Industry
(Chartered Accountants Australia and New Zealand, 2016)
Since the global financial crisis (GFC), financial institutions and practitioners in Australia, New Zealand and Asia have come under scrutiny for a range of ethical transgressions leading to industry scandal, as have their more well-known counterparts in the United States and United Kingdom. Some scandals were caused by people who – driven by greed and the demands of a complex, fast-paced industry – chose to behave unethically. However, evidence from social psychology points to an alternative explanation: a good deal of unethical behaviour is also unconscious. In A Question of Ethics, we draw on themes and findings from various industry scandals to examine contributing factors at the structural, social and individual levels that influence ethical conduct, and how these may be distorted by what social psychologists refer to as cognitive biases. We present data from a six-country survey of banking and financial services industry practitioners, which explores attitudes towards questionable practices and seeks views about the potential for ethical improvement.
Harmful Workplace Experiences and Women's Occupational Well-Being: A Meta-Analysis
(SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2016-03-01)
We report a meta-analytic review of studies examining the relations among harmful workplace experiences and women’s occupational well-being. Based on previous research, a classification of harmful workplace experiences affecting women is proposed and then used in the analysis of 88 studies with 93 independent samples, containing 73,877 working women. We compare the associations of different harmful workplace experiences and job stressors with women’s work attitudes and health. Random-effects meta-analysis and path analysis showed that more intense yet less frequent harmful experiences (e.g., sexual coercion and unwanted sexual attention) and less intense but more frequent harmful experiences (e.g., sexist organizational climate and gender harassment) had similar negative effects on women’s well-being. Harmful workplace experiences were independent from and as negative as job stressors in their impact on women’s occupational well-being. The power imbalance between the target and the perpetrator appeared as a potential factor to explain the type and impact of harmful workplace experiences affecting women’s occupational well-being. In the discussion, we identify several gaps in the literature, suggest directions for future research, and suggest organizational policy changes and interventions that could be effective at reducing the incidence of harmful workplace experiences. Additional online materials for this article are available to PWQ subscribers on PWQ's website at http://pwq.sagepub.com/supplemental.
Inclusion climate: A multilevel investigation of its antecedents and consequences
(WILEY PERIODICALS, INC, 2019-07-01)
This study investigates the antecedents and consequences of organization-level inclusion climate. A national sample of human resource decision-makers from 100 organizations described their firms' formal diversity management programs; 3,229 employees reported their perceptions of, and reactions to, their employers' diversity management. Multilevel analyses demonstrate that identity-conscious programs (programs that target specific identity groups) generate an inclusion climate. Moreover, the analyses provide evidence of multilevel mediation: In organizations with an inclusion climate, individual employees perceive the organization as fulfilling its diversity management obligations and respond with higher levels of affective commitment. This study represents an important step toward understanding how a shared perception of organizational inclusiveness develops and how inclusion climate facilitates the achievement of diversity management objectives. The findings also shed light on the important role of identity-conscious programs in promoting organizational commitment within a diverse workforce.
Wongabel Rhabdovirus Accessory Protein U3 Targets the SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodeling Complex
(AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY, 2015-01-01)
UNLABELLED: Wongabel virus (WONV) is an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus that infects birds. It is one of the growing array of rhabdoviruses with complex genomes that encode multiple accessory proteins of unknown function. In addition to the five canonical rhabdovirus structural protein genes (N, P, M, G, and L), the 13.2-kb negative-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) WONV genome contains five uncharacterized accessory genes, one overlapping the N gene (Nx or U4), three located between the P and M genes (U1 to U3), and a fifth one overlapping the G gene (Gx or U5). Here we show that WONV U3 is expressed during infection in insect and mammalian cells and is required for efficient viral replication. A yeast two-hybrid screen against a mosquito cell cDNA library identified that WONV U3 interacts with the 83-amino-acid (aa) C-terminal domain of SNF5, a component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. The interaction was confirmed by affinity chromatography, and nuclear colocalization was established by confocal microscopy. Gene expression studies showed that SNF5 transcripts are upregulated during infection of mosquito cells with WONV, as well as West Nile virus (Flaviviridae) and bovine ephemeral fever virus (Rhabdoviridae), and that SNF5 knockdown results in increased WONV replication. WONV U3 also inhibits SNF5-regulated expression of the cytokine gene CSF1. The data suggest that WONV U3 targets the SWI/SNF complex to block the host response to infection. IMPORTANCE: The rhabdoviruses comprise a large family of RNA viruses infecting plants, vertebrates, and invertebrates. In addition to the major structural proteins (N, P, M, G, and L), many rhabdoviruses encode a diverse array of accessory proteins of largely unknown function. Understanding the role of these proteins may reveal much about host-pathogen interactions in infected cells. Here we examine accessory protein U3 of Wongabel virus, an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus that infects birds. We show that U3 enters the nucleus and interacts with SNF5, a component of the chromatin remodeling complex that is upregulated in response to infection and restricts viral replication. We also show that U3 inhibits SNF5-regulated expression of the cytokine colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1), suggesting that it targets the chromatin remodeling complex to block the host response to infection. This study appears to provide the first evidence of a virus targeting SNF5 to inhibit host gene expression.
The finite horizon, undiscounted, durable goods monopoly problem with finitely many consumers
(ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA, 2019-05-01)
We study the uncommitted durable goods monopoly problem when there are finitely many consumers, a finite horizon, and no discounting. In particular we characterize the set of strong-Markov subgame perfect equilibria that satisfy the skimming property. We show that in any such equilibrium the profits are not less than static monopoly profits; and at most the static monopoly profits plus the monopoly price. When each consumer is small relative to the market, profits are then approximately the same as those of a static monopolist which sets a single price. Finally, we extend the equilibrium characterization to games with an arbitrary discount factor.
Transient dynamics in trial-offer markets with social influence: Trade-offs between appeal and quality
(PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2017-07-26)
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. We study a trial-offer market where consumers may purchase one of two competing products. Consumer preferences are affected by the products quality, their appeal, and their popularity. While the asymptotic convergence or stationary states of these, and related dynamical systems, has been vastly studied, the literature regarding the transitory dynamics remains surprisingly sparse. To fill this gap, we derive a system of Ordinary Differential Equations, which is solved exactly to gain insight into the roles played by product qualities and appeals in the market behavior. We observe a logarithmic tradeoff between quality and appeal for medium and long-term marketing strategies: The expected market shares remain constant if a decrease in quality is followed by an exponential increase in the product appeal. However, for short time horizons, the trade-off is linear. Finally, we study the variability of the dynamics through Monte Carlo simulations and discover that low appeals may result in high levels of variability. The model results suggest effective marketing strategies for short and long time horizons and emphasize the significance of advertising early in the market life to increase sales and predictability.
Assortment optimization under the Sequential Multinomial Logit Model
(ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2019-03-16)
We study the assortment optimization problem under the Sequential Multinomial Logit (SML), a discrete choice model that generalizes the Multinomial Logit (MNL). Under the SML model, products are partitioned into two levels, to capture differences in attractiveness, brand awareness and, or visibility of the products in the market. When a consumer is presented with an assortment of products, she first considers products in the first level and, if none of them is purchased, products in the second level are considered. This model is a special case of the Perception-Adjusted Luce Model (PALM) recently proposed by Echenique et al. (2018). It can explain many behavioral phenomena such as the attraction, compromise, similarity effects and choice overload which cannot be explained by the MNL model or any discrete choice model based on random utility. In particular, the SML model allows violations to regularity which states that the probability of choosing a product cannot increase if the offer set is enlarged. This paper shows that the seminal concept of revenue-ordered assortment sets, which contain an optimal assortment under the MNL model, can be generalized to the SML model. More precisely, the paper proves that all optimal assortments under the SML are revenue-ordered by level, a natural generalization of revenue-ordered assortments that contains, at most, a quadratic number of assortments. As a corollary, assortment optimization under the SML is polynomial-time solvable.
Benefit of the doubt: the buffering influence of normative contracts on the breach-workplace performance relationship
(ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2019-03-28)
This study investigates the influence of employees' perception of managerial breach of the normative relational contract (i.e. the psychological relational contract at the group level) on workplace performance. Many employees in Australia are employed on a permanent or continuing basis and have normative relational contracts whose terms are embedded in human resource practices. We use normative relational contract theory to hypothesise that where there is a mutually recognised high-quality normative relational contract – a strong contract – the emotional bonds of loyalty that are developed by collective sense-making constrained negative reactions to breach. We also hypothesise that, where managers offer high-quality contract terms that are not recognised by employees, the failure to elicit loyalty means that breach has negative performance consequences. Panel data are obtained from a two-stage national, multi-source study of employees (n = 1,733) and senior human resource managers (n = 57). Results from hierarchical moderator regression analyses support the hypotheses. They demonstrate that a strong normative relational contract ‘buffers’ employees’ negative responses to breach.