Business Administration - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 26
From the Field to the Laboratory: The Theory-Practice Research of Peter J. Carnevale
As colleagues and collaborators, we reflect on the work and legacy of Peter Carnevale, currently professor at the University of Southern California, and recipient of the 2002 Jeffrey Z. Rubin Theory-to-Practice Award of the International Association for Conflict Management (IACM). We review Carnevale’s main contributions, including his work on time pressure and surveillance, strategies for mediation, emotions in negotiation, and the use and integration of distinct methods for studying conflict and negotiation. We share personal anecdotes from our time as PhD students and collaborators with Peter Carnevale, and we touch on lessons learned for doing science and mentoring the next generation.
Toward a theory of entry in moral markets: The role of social movements and organizational identity
(SAGE Publications, 2020-02-01)
A growing body of research on moral markets—sectors whose raison d’être is to create social value by offering market solutions to social and environmental issues—has offered critical insights into the emergence and growth of these sectors. Less is known, however, about why some firms enter moral markets while others do not. Drawing from research on market entry, organizational identity, and social movements, we develop a theory that highlights the potential of organizational identity to explain variation in entry into moral markets. We then expand our framework by theorizing about contingencies that alter the shape of the relationship between organizational identity and market entry: the flexibility of the organizations’ identity, the type, and orientation of the social movement supporting the moral market, and the mode of market entry (de novo vs de alio). Finally, we discuss the contributions of our framework and opportunities for its extension.
Conflict management style asymmetry in short-term project groups
(SAGE Publications, 2020)
Relatively little is known about how the composition of individual conflict management styles affects group functioning. This is unfortunate because, specifically in short-term project groups, this conflict management style composition may be pivotal given the strong task focus rather than establishing norms to guide or manage conflict. Therefore, we examined whether conflict style asymmetry within short-term project groups affects the link between intragroup conflict and the performance of groups. Data were collected among short-term project groups and the results suggest that asymmetry in both forcing and the problem-solving conflict management styles moderates the negative effect of task, relationship, and process conflicts on the performance of groups. We offer a discussion of the implications of these findings.
When the tables are turned: The effects of the 2016 US Presidential election on in-group favoritism and out-group hostility
(PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2018-05-24)
The outcome of the 2016 U.S. Presidential election was a big surprise to many, as the majority of polls had predicted the opposite outcome. In this two-stage cross-sectional study, we focus on how Democrats and Republicans reacted to this electoral surprise and how these reactions might have influenced the way they allocated resources to each other in small groups. We find that, before the election, Republicans showed greater in-group favoritism than Democrats, who treated others equally, regardless of their political affiliation. We then show that Democrats experienced the election outcome as an ego shock and, in the week following the election, reported significantly higher levels of negative emotions and lower levels of self-esteem than Republicans. These reactions then predicted how individuals' decided to allocate resources to others: after the election, Republicans no longer showed in-group favoritism, while Democrats showed out-group derogation. We find these decisions when the tables were turned can be partially explained by differences in participants' state self-esteem.
Cold War spy satellite images reveal long-term declines of a philopatric keystone species in response to cropland expansion
(Royal Society, The, 2020-05-27)
Agricultural expansion drives biodiversity loss globally, but impact assessments are biased towards recent time periods. This can lead to a gross underestimation of species declines in response to habitat loss, especially when species declines are gradual and occur over long time periods. Using Cold War spy satellite images (Corona), we show that a grassland keystone species, the bobak marmot (Marmota bobak), continues to respond to agricultural expansion that happened more than 50 years ago. Although burrow densities of the bobak marmot today are highest in croplands, densities declined most strongly in areas that were persistently used as croplands since the 1960s. This response to historical agricultural conversion spans roughly eight marmot generations and suggests the longest recorded response of a mammal species to agricultural expansion. We also found evidence for remarkable philopatry: nearly half of all burrows retained their exact location since the 1960s, and this was most pronounced in grasslands. Our results stress the need for farsighted decisions, because contemporary land management will affect biodiversity decades into the future. Finally, our work pioneers the use of Corona historical Cold War spy satellite imagery for ecology. This vastly underused global remote sensing resource provides a unique opportunity to expand the time horizon of broad-scale ecological studies.
Diverse effects of diversity: Disaggregating effects of diversity in global virtual team
Global Virtual Team (GVT) member diversity provides many advantages but also poses many challenges. Diversity comes in different forms that each has different effects on GVT dynamics and performance. Past research typically explored the effect of only one type of diversity at a time. Using multi-source, multi-wave data from 5728 individuals working in 804 consulting project GVTs, the present study is unique in that it explores and compares the effects of different forms of team member diversity on different aspects of GVT effectiveness in a single sample. It proposes a refined theoretical model that differentiates between the effects of personal versus contextual diversity and articulates how these distinct forms of diversity affect different aspects of GVT effectiveness (i.e., task outcomes versus psychological outcomes). The results reveal that (1) team member diversity in general has a substantial effect on GVT effectiveness; (2) contextual diversity has a positive effect on task outcomes; and (3) personal diversity has a negative effect on psychological outcomes. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
Pricing policies for selling indivisible storable goods to strategic consumers
(Springer (part of Springer Nature), 2019-03)
We study the dynamic pricing problem faced by a monopolistic retailer who sells a storable product to forward-looking consumers. In this framework, the two major pricing policies (or mechanisms) studied in the literature are the preannounced (commitment) pricing policy and the contingent (threat or history dependent) pricing policy. We analyse and compare these pricing policies in the setting where the good can be purchased along a finite time horizon in indivisible atomic quantities. First, we show that, given linear storage costs, the retailer can compute an optimal preannounced pricing policy in polynomial time by solving a dynamic program. Moreover, under such a policy, we show that consumers do not need to store units in order to anticipate price rises. Second, under the contingent pricing policy rather than the preannounced pricing mechanism, (i) prices could be lower, (ii) retailer revenues could be higher, and (iii) consumer surplus could be higher. This result is surprising, in that these three facts are in complete contrast to the case of a retailer selling divisible storable goods (Dudine et al. in Am Econ Rev 96(5):1706–1719, 2006). Third, we quantify exactly how much more profitable a contingent policy could be with respect to a preannounced policy. Specifically, for a market with N consumers, a contingent policy can produce a multiplicative factor of Ω(logN) more revenues than a preannounced policy, and this bound is tight.
Assortment optimization under the Sequential Multinomial Logit Model
We study the assortment optimization problem under the Sequential Multinomial Logit (SML), a discrete choice model that generalizes the Multinomial Logit (MNL). Under the SML model, products are partitioned into two levels, to capture differences in attractiveness, brand awareness and, or visibility of the products in the market. When a consumer is presented with an assortment of products, she first considers products in the first level and, if none of them is purchased, products in the second level are considered. This model is a special case of the Perception-Adjusted Luce Model (PALM) recently proposed by Echenique et al. (2018). It can explain many behavioral phenomena such as the attraction, compromise, similarity effects and choice overload which cannot be explained by the MNL model or any discrete choice model based on random utility. In particular, the SML model allows violations to regularity which states that the probability of choosing a product cannot increase if the offer set is enlarged. This paper shows that the seminal concept of revenue-ordered assortment sets, which contain an optimal assortment under the MNL model, can be generalized to the SML model. More precisely, the paper proves that all optimal assortments under the SML are revenue-ordered by level, a natural generalization of revenue-ordered assortments that contains, at most, a quadratic number of assortments. As a corollary, assortment optimization under the SML is polynomial-time solvable.
The finite horizon, undiscounted, durable goods monopoly problem with finitely many consumers
We study the uncommitted durable goods monopoly problem when there are finitely many consumers, a finite horizon, and no discounting. In particular we characterize the set of strong-Markov subgame perfect equilibria that satisfy the skimming property. We show that in any such equilibrium the profits are not less than static monopoly profits; and at most the static monopoly profits plus the monopoly price. When each consumer is small relative to the market, profits are then approximately the same as those of a static monopolist which sets a single price. Finally, we extend the equilibrium characterization to games with an arbitrary discount factor.
Benefit of the doubt: the buffering influence of normative contracts on the breach–workplace performance relationship
(Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2020)
This study investigates the influence of employees' perception of managerial breach of the normative relational contract (i.e. the psychological relational contract at the group level) on workplace performance. Many employees in Australia are employed on a permanent or continuing basis and have normative relational contracts whose terms are embedded in human resource practices. We use normative relational contract theory to hypothesise that where there is a mutually recognised high-quality normative relational contract – a strong contract – the emotional bonds of loyalty that are developed by collective sense-making constrained negative reactions to breach. We also hypothesise that, where managers offer high-quality contract terms that are not recognised by employees, the failure to elicit loyalty means that breach has negative performance consequences. Panel data are obtained from a two-stage national, multi-source study of employees (n = 1,733) and senior human resource managers (n = 57). Results from hierarchical moderator regression analyses support the hypotheses. They demonstrate that a strong normative relational contract ‘buffers’ employees’ negative responses to breach.
Inclusion climate: A multilevel investigation of its antecedents and consequences
This study investigates the antecedents and consequences of organization-level inclusion climate. A national sample of human resource decision-makers from 100 organizations described their firms' formal diversity management programs; 3,229 employees reported their perceptions of, and reactions to, their employers' diversity management. Multilevel analyses demonstrate that identity-conscious programs (programs that target specific identity groups) generate an inclusion climate. Moreover, the analyses provide evidence of multilevel mediation: In organizations with an inclusion climate, individual employees perceive the organization as fulfilling its diversity management obligations and respond with higher levels of affective commitment. This study represents an important step toward understanding how a shared perception of organizational inclusiveness develops and how inclusion climate facilitates the achievement of diversity management objectives. The findings also shed light on the important role of identity-conscious programs in promoting organizational commitment within a diverse workforce.
Why are Self-Help Books with Career Advice for Women Popular?
(Academy of Management, 2019-02-28)
Self-help books with career advice for women who aspire to leadership are popular. This popularity is somewhat surprising, in that the advice appears to take us back to the “fix the women” approach to career advancement of the 1960s and 1970s. Sheryl Sandberg’s (2013)Lean In is a vivid example of this popular genre. In this paper, we use Sandberg’s book to examine why a focus on personal agency is resonating with so many women. We explain the success of Lean In from the working woman’s perspective, comparing and contrasting the academic and popular literatures. We then reflect on the relevance of individual action as a catalyst for change in relation to the more difficult-to-change barriers to women’s advancement at the interpersonal, organizational, and societal levels. We conclude by reflecting on what the popularity of the self-help literature tells scholars about future research directions and the dissemination of their findings.