Vitamin D and HIV: exploring determinants of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and altered vitamin D metabolism in HIV-infected adults
AffiliationMedicine (Northwest Academic Centre)
Melbourne Medical School Collected Works
Document TypePhD thesis
Access StatusOnly available to University of Melbourne staff and students, login required
© 2015 Dr. Karen Klassen
Background: Vitamin D deficiency is a widespread global problem of particular importance for people with HIV. Vitamin D is an important hormone for endocrine and extra-endocrine functions, including modulating the immune system. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with reduced bone mineral density and infectious diseases, both common in people with HIV. Maintaining optimal vitamin D levels may help to reduce the risk of developing these diseases. The overall research questions for this thesis are: Firstly, which factors influence vitamin D metabolites, and secondly, what effect does vitamin D status have on bone and immunological outcomes, in people living with HIV infection? Method: To answer these questions, five studies were performed: 1. Cross-sectional comparison of 25(OH)D levels in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals in southern Australia. 2. Cross-sectional analysis of the determinants of 25(OH)D in people with HIV in Queensland and Melbourne, Australia. 3. Cross-sectional analysis of parathyroid hormone levels in antiretroviral-treated individuals. 4. Cross-sectional analysis of the effect of 25(OH)D on bone mineral density in antiretroviral-treated individuals. 5. Longitudinal analysis of CD4 cell count trajectory in antiretroviral-untreated individuals. Results: 1. People with HIV were more likely to be vitamin D deficient when compared with people without HIV in southern Australia. 2. Determinants of 25(OH)D levels: a. UV index and location are important determinants of 25(OH)D levels in people with HIV in Australia. b. Antiretroviral therapy impacts 25(OH)D levels: i. Efavirenz is associated with lower 25(OH)D levels, particularly in those with dyslipidaemia. ii. Protease inhibitors are associated with higher 25(OH)D levels. 3. The effect of tenofovir on parathyroid hormone levels depends on sex and ethnicity; parathyroid hormone levels were higher in non-white males using tenofovir. 4. Influence of ART and 25(OH)D on 1,25(OH)2D levels and bone mineral density: a. People using tenofovir have higher 1,25(OH)2D levels and people using protease inhibitors have lower 1,25(OH)2D levels. b. There is an interaction between tenofovir and 25(OH)D status on 1,25(OH)2D levels and bone mineral density. Vitamin D deficiency increases the odds of low bone mineral density only in those not using tenofovir. 5. Vitamin D deficiency may reduce the time to CD4 decline to <350 cells/μL in people living with HIV and untreated with antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions: Traditional risk factors for vitamin D deficiency and bone mineral density appear to be more important than HIV-related factors in people with HIV. In spite of this, antiretroviral therapy clearly alters vitamin D and bone metabolism. Understanding the mechanisms behind these alterations may assist in modifying the negative effects of vitamin D deficiency.
KeywordsHuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV); 25-hydroxyvitamin D; 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D; vitamin D; Antiretroviral therapy (ART); bone mineral density (BMD)
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