School of BioSciences - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 449
Glycome and Proteome Components of Golgi Membranes Are Common between Two Angiosperms with Distinct Cell-Wall Structures
(AMER SOC PLANT BIOLOGISTS, 2019-05-01)
The plant endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi apparatus is the site of synthesis, assembly, and trafficking of all noncellulosic polysaccharides, proteoglycans, and proteins destined for the cell wall. As grass species make cell walls distinct from those of dicots and noncommelinid monocots, it has been assumed that the differences in cell-wall composition stem from differences in biosynthetic capacities of their respective Golgi. However, immunosorbence-based screens and carbohydrate linkage analysis of polysaccharides in Golgi membranes, enriched by flotation centrifugation from etiolated coleoptiles of maize (Zea mays) and leaves of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), showed that arabinogalactan-proteins and arabinans represent substantial portions of the Golgi-resident polysaccharides not typically found in high abundance in cell walls of either species. Further, hemicelluloses accumulated in Golgi at levels that contrasted with those found in their respective cell walls, with xyloglucans enriched in maize Golgi, and xylans enriched in Arabidopsis. Consistent with this finding, maize Golgi membranes isolated by flotation centrifugation and enriched further by free-flow electrophoresis, yielded >200 proteins known to function in the biosynthesis and metabolism of cell-wall polysaccharides common to all angiosperms, and not just those specific to cell-wall type. We propose that the distinctive compositions of grass primary cell walls compared with other angiosperms result from differential gating or metabolism of secreted polysaccharides post-Golgi by an as-yet unknown mechanism, and not necessarily by differential expression of genes encoding specific synthase complexes.
Absolute Quantitation of In Vitro Expressed Plant Membrane Proteins by Targeted Proteomics (MRM) for the Determination of Kinetic Parameters.
The purification of a functional soluble protein from biological or in vitro expression systems can be problematic and the enrichment of a functional membrane protein for biochemical analyses can be a serious technical challenge. Recently we have been characterizing plant endomembrane nucleotide sugar transporters using a yeast expression system. However, rather than enriching these in vitro expressed proteins to homogeneity, we have been conducting biochemical characterization of these transport proteins in yeast microsomal fractions. While this approach has enabled us to estimate a variety of kinetic parameters, the accurate determination of the turnover number of an enzyme-substrate complex (k cat) requires that the catalytic site concentration (amount of protein) in the total reaction volume is known. As a result, we have been employing targeted proteomics (multiple reaction monitoring) with peptide standards and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer to estimate the absolute amount of protein in a mixed protein microsomal fraction. The following method details the steps required to define the absolute quantitation of an in vitro expressed membrane protein to define complete kinetic parameters.
Enrichment of Golgi Membranes from Triticum aestivum (Wheat) Seedlings
(HUMANA PRESS INC, 2017-01-01)
The Golgi apparatus is an essential component in the plant secretory pathway. The enrichment of Golgi membranes from plant tissue is fundamental to the study of this structurally complex organelle. The utilization of density centrifugation for the enrichment of Golgi membranes is still the most widely employed isolation technique. Generally, the procedure requires optimization depending on the plant tissue being employed. Here we provide a detailed enrichment procedure that has previously been used to characterize cell wall biosynthetic complexes from wheat seedlings. We also outline several downstream analyses procedures, including nucleoside diphosphatase assays, immunoblotting, and finally localization of putative Golgi proteins by fluorescent tags.
Enrichment of the Plant Cytosolic Fraction
(HUMANA PRESS INC, 2017-01-01)
The cytosol is at the core of cellular metabolism and contains many important metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the pentose phosphate pathway. Despite the importance of this matrix, few attempts have sought to specifically enrich this compartment from plants. Although a variety of biochemical pathways and signaling cascades pass through the cytosol, much of the focus has usually been targeted at the reactions that occur within membrane-bound organelles of the plant cell. In this chapter, we outline a method for the enrichment of the cytosol from rice suspension cell cultures which includes sample preparation and enrichment as well as validation using immunoblotting and fluorescence-tagged proteins.
Proteomic Characterization of Golgi Membranes Enriched from Arabidopsis Suspension Cell Cultures
(HUMANA PRESS INC, 2016-01-01)
© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016. The plant Golgi apparatus has a central role in the secretory pathway and is the principal site within the cell for the assembly and processing of macromolecules. The stacked membrane structure of the Golgi apparatus along with its interactions with the cytoskeleton and endoplasmic reticulum has historically made the isolation and purification of this organelle difficult. Density centrifugation has typically been used to enrich Golgi membranes from plant microsomal preparations, and aside from minor adaptations, the approach is still widely employed. Here we outline the enrichment of Golgi membranes from an Arabidopsis cell suspension culture that can be used to investigate the proteome of this organelle. We also provide a useful workflow for the examination of proteomic data as the result of multiple analyses. Finally, we highlight a simple technique to validate the subcellular localization of proteins by fluorescent tags after their identification by tandem mass spectrometry.
We Are Not Alone: The iMOP Initiative and Its Roles in a Biology- and Disease-Driven Human Proteome Project
(AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2017-12-01)
Mapping of the human proteome has advanced significantly in recent years and will provide a knowledge base to accelerate our understanding of how proteins and protein networks can affect human health and disease. However, providing solutions to human health challenges will likely fail if insights are exclusively based on studies of human samples and human proteomes. In recent years, it has become evident that human health depends on an integrated understanding of the many species that make human life possible. These include the commensal microorganisms that are essential to human life, pathogens, and food species as well as the classic model organisms that enable studies of biological mechanisms. The Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) initiative on multiorganism proteomes (iMOP) works to support proteome research undertaken on nonhuman species that remain widely under-studied compared with the progress in human proteome research. This perspective argues the need for further research on multiple species that impact human life. We also present an update on recent progress in model organisms, microbiota, and food species, address the emerging problem of antibiotics resistance, and outline how iMOP activities could lead to a more inclusive approach for the human proteome project (HPP) to better support proteome research aimed at improving human health and furthering knowledge on human biology.
Free-Flow Electrophoresis of Plasma Membrane Vesicles Enriched by Two-Phase Partitioning Enhances the Quality of the Proteome from Arabidopsis Seedlings
(AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2016-03-01)
The plant plasma membrane is the interface between the cell and its environment undertaking a range of important functions related to transport, signaling, cell wall biosynthesis, and secretion. Multiple proteomic studies have attempted to capture the diversity of proteins in the plasma membrane using biochemical fractionation techniques. In this study, two-phase partitioning was combined with free-flow electrophoresis to produce a population of highly purified plasma membrane vesicles that were subsequently characterized by tandem mass spectroscopy. This combined high-quality plasma membrane isolation technique produced a reproducible proteomic library of over 1000 proteins with an extended dynamic range including plasma membrane-associated proteins. The approach enabled the detection of a number of putative plasma membrane proteins not previously identified by other studies, including peripheral membrane proteins. Utilizing multiple data sources, we developed a PM-confidence score to provide a value indicating association to the plasma membrane. This study highlights over 700 proteins that, while seemingly abundant at the plasma membrane, are mostly unstudied. To validate this data set, we selected 14 candidates and transiently localized 13 to the plasma membrane using a fluorescent tag. Given the importance of the plasma membrane, this data set provides a valuable tool to further investigate important proteins. The mass spectrometry data are available via ProteomeXchange, identifier PXD001795.
Proteome profile of the endomembrane of developing coleoptiles from switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)
The cost-effective production of biofuels from lignocellulosic material will likely require manipulation of plant biomass, specifically cell walls. The North American native prairie grass Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) is seen as a potential biofuel crop with an array of genetic resources currently being developed. We have characterized the endomembrane proteome of switchgrass coleoptiles to provide additional information to the switchgrass community. In total, we identified 1750 unique proteins from two biological replicates. These data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD001351 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001351).
Exposure of trophoblast cells to fine particulate matter air pollution leads to growth inhibition, inflammation and ER stress
(PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2019-07-18)
Ambient air pollution is considered a major environmental health threat to pregnant women. Our previous work has shown an association between exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) and an increased risk of developing pre-eclamspia. It is now recognized that many pregnancy complications are due to underlying placental dysfunction, and this tissue plays a pivotal role in pre-eclamspia. Recent studies have shown that PM can enter the circulation and reach the human placenta but the effects of PM on human placental function are still largely unknown. In this work we investigated the effects of airborne PM on trophoblast cells. Human, first trimester trophoblast cells (HTR-8/SV) were exposed to urban pollution particles (Malmö PM2.5; Prague PM10) for up to seven days in vitro and were analysed for uptake, levels of hCGβ and IL-6 secretion and proteomic analysis. HTR-8/SVneo cells rapidly endocytose PM within 30 min of exposure and particles accumulate in the cell in perinuclear vesicles. High doses of Prague and Malmö PM (500–5000 ng/ml) significantly decreased hCGβ secretion and increased IL-6 secretion after 48 h exposure. Exposure to PM (50 ng/ml) for 48h or seven days led to reduced cellular growth and altered protein expression. The differentially expressed proteins are involved in networks that regulate cellular processes such as inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, cellular survival and molecular transport pathways. Our studies suggest that trophoblast cells exposed to low levels of urban PM respond with reduced growth, oxidative stress, inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress after taking up the particles by endocytosis. Many of the dysfunctional cellular processes ascribed to the differentially expressed proteins in this study, are similar to those described in PE, suggesting that low levels of urban PM may disrupt cellular processes in trophoblast cells. Many of the differentially expressed proteins identified in this study are involved in inflammation and may be potential biomarkers for PE.
A Requirement for FGF Signalling in the Formation of Primitive Streak-Like Intermediates from Primitive Ectoderm in Culture
(PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2010-09-03)
BACKGROUND: Embryonic stem (ES) cells hold considerable promise as a source of cells with therapeutic potential, including cells that can be used for drug screening and in cell replacement therapies. Differentiation of ES cells into the somatic lineages is a regulated process; before the promise of these cells can be realised robust and rational methods for directing differentiation into normal, functional and safe cells need to be developed. Previous in vivo studies have implicated fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling in lineage specification from pluripotent cells. Although FGF signalling has been suggested as essential for specification of mesoderm and endoderm in vivo and in culture, the exact role of this pathway remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a culture model based on early primitive ectoderm-like (EPL) cells we have investigated the role of FGF signalling in the specification of mesoderm. We were unable to demonstrate any mesoderm inductive capability associated with FGF1, 4 or 8 signalling, even when the factors were present at high concentrations, nor any enhancement in mesoderm formation induced by exogenous BMP4. Furthermore, there was no evidence of alteration of mesoderm sub-type formed with addition of FGF1, 4 or 8. Inhibition of endogenous FGF signalling, however, prevented mesoderm and favoured neural differentiation, suggesting FGF signalling was required but not sufficient for the differentiation of primitive ectoderm into primitive streak-like intermediates. The maintenance of ES cell/early epiblast pluripotent marker expression was also observed in cultures when FGF signalling was inhibited. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: FGF signalling has been shown to be required for the differentiation of primitive ectoderm to neurectoderm. This, coupled with our observations, suggest FGF signalling is required for differentiation of the primitive ectoderm into the germ lineages at gastrulation.
A Role for Smoothened during Murine Lens and Cornea Development
(PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2014-09-30)
Various studies suggest that Hedgehog (Hh) signalling plays roles in human and zebrafish ocular development. Recent studies (Kerr et al., Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012; 53, 3316-30) showed that conditionally activating Hh signals promotes murine lens epithelial cell proliferation and disrupts fibre differentiation. In this study we examined the expression of the Hh pathway and the requirement for the Smoothened gene in murine lens development. Expression of Hh pathway components in developing lens was examined by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and in situ hybridisation. The requirement of Smo in lens development was determined by conditional loss-of-function mutations, using LeCre and MLR10 Cre transgenic mice. The phenotype of mutant mice was examined by immunofluorescence for various markers of cell cycle, lens and cornea differentiation. Hh pathway components (Ptch1, Smo, Gli2, Gli3) were detected in lens epithelium from E12.5. Gli2 was particularly localised to mitotic nuclei and, at E13.5, Gli3 exhibited a shift from cytosol to nucleus, suggesting distinct roles for these transcription factors. Conditional deletion of Smo, from ∼E12.5 (MLR10 Cre) did not affect ocular development, whereas deletion from ∼E9.5 (LeCre) resulted in lens and corneal defects from E14.5. Mutant lenses were smaller and showed normal expression of p57Kip2, c-Maf, E-cadherin and Pax6, reduced expression of FoxE3 and Ptch1 and decreased nuclear Hes1. There was normal G1-S phase but decreased G2-M phase transition at E16.5 and epithelial cell death from E14.5-E16.5. Mutant corneas were thicker due to aberrant migration of Nrp2+ cells from the extraocular mesenchyme, resulting in delayed corneal endothelial but normal epithelial differentiation. These results indicate the Hh pathway is required during a discrete period (E9.5-E12.5) in lens development to regulate lens epithelial cell proliferation, survival and FoxE3 expression. Defective corneal development occurs secondary to defects in lens and appears to be due to defective migration of peri-ocular Nrp2+ neural crest/mesenchymal cells.