Melbourne School of Health Sciences Collected Works - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 232
Preoperative Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test Associated with Postoperative Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Cancer Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses
BACKGROUNDS: There is mixed evidence on the value of preoperative cardiorespiratory exercise test (CPET) to predict postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing a cancer surgical procedure. The purpose of this review was to investigate the association between preoperative CPET variables and postoperative complications, length of hospital stay, and quality of life in patients undergoing cancer surgery. METHODS: A search was conducted on MEDLINE, Embase, AMED, and Web of science from inception to April 2020. Cohort studies investigating the association between preoperative CPET variables, including peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2), anaerobic threshold (AT), or ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide (VE/VCO2), and postoperative outcomes (complications, length of stay, and quality of life) were included. Risk of bias was assessed using the QUIPS tool. A random-effect model meta-analysis was performed whenever possible. RESULTS: Fifty-two unique studies, including 10,030 patients were included. Overall, most studies were rated as having low risk of bias. Higher preoperative peak VO2 was associated with absence of postoperative complications (mean difference [MD]: 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.26-3.29) and no pulmonary complication (MD: 1.47; 95% CI: 0.49-2.45). Preoperative AT and VE/VCO2 also demonstrated some positive trends. None of the included studies reported a negative trend. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrated a significant association between superior preoperative CPET values, especially peak VO2, and better postoperative outcomes. The assessment of preoperative functional capacity in patients undergoing cancer surgery has the potential to facilitate treatment decision making.
A Deep Learning Model to Automate Skeletal Muscle Area Measurement on Computed Tomography Images
(FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2021-05-07)
Background: Muscle wasting (Sarcopenia) is associated with poor outcomes in cancer patients. Early identification of sarcopenia can facilitate nutritional and exercise intervention. Cross-sectional skeletal muscle (SM) area at the third lumbar vertebra (L3) slice of a computed tomography (CT) image is increasingly used to assess body composition and calculate SM index (SMI), a validated surrogate marker for sarcopenia in cancer. Manual segmentation of SM requires multiple steps, which limits use in routine clinical practice. This project aims to develop an automatic method to segment L3 muscle in CT scans. Methods: Attenuation correction CTs from full body PET-CT scans from patients enrolled in two prospective trials were used. The training set consisted of 66 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who underwent curative intent radiotherapy. An additional 42 NSCLC patients prescribed curative intent chemo-radiotherapy from a second trial were used for testing. Each patient had multiple CT scans taken at different time points prior to and post- treatment (147 CTs in the training and validation set and 116 CTs in the independent testing set). Skeletal muscle at L3 vertebra was manually segmented by two observers, according to the Alberta protocol to serve as ground truth labels. This included 40 images segmented by both observers to measure inter-observer variation. An ensemble of 2.5D fully convolutional neural networks (U-Nets) was used to perform the segmentation. The final layer of U-Net produced the binary classification of the pixels into muscle and non-muscle area. The model performance was calculated using Dice score and absolute percentage error (APE) in skeletal muscle area between manual and automated contours. Results: We trained five 2.5D U-Nets using 5-fold cross validation and used them to predict the contours in the testing set. The model achieved a mean Dice score of 0.92 and an APE of 3.1% on the independent testing set. This was similar to inter-observer variation of 0.96 and 2.9% for mean Dice and APE respectively. We further quantified the performance of sarcopenia classification using computer generated skeletal muscle area. To meet a clinical diagnosis of sarcopenia based on Alberta protocol the model achieved a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 95%. Conclusions: This work demonstrates an automated method for accurate and reproducible segmentation of skeletal muscle area at L3. This is an efficient tool for large scale or routine computation of skeletal muscle area in cancer patients which may have applications on low quality CTs acquired as part of PET/CT studies for staging and surveillance of patients with cancer.
Implementing a telehealth prehabilitation education session for patients preparing for major cancer surgery
BACKGROUND: Prehabilitation services assist patients in preparing for surgery, yet access to these services are often limited by geographical factors. Enabling rural and regional patients to access specialist surgical prehabilitation support with the use of telehealth technology has the potential to overcome health inequities and improve post-operative outcomes. AIM: To evaluate the current and likely future impact of a telehealth preoperative education package for patients preparing for major abdominal cancer surgery. METHODS: A telehealth alternative to a hospital based pre-operative education session was developed and implemented at a dedicated cancer hospital. Adult patients (≥18 years) scheduled for elective major cancer surgery were offered this telehealth alternative. Impact evaluation was conducted using the RE-AIM framework. RESULTS: To date, 35 participants have consented to participate in the study. Thirty-one participants attended the intervention; 24 (69%) residing in rural or regional areas. Twenty-four (77%) reported that if given a choice they would prefer the online session as opposed to attending the hospital in person. The majority (97%) reported they would recommend the intervention to others preparing for surgery. Session information was recalled by all 26 participants and 77% of participants reported acting on recommendations 2 weeks after the session. Lessons learnt and recommendations for providers implementing similar programs are reported. CONCLUSION: Telehealth alternatives to hospital based pre-operative education are well received by patients preparing for major cancer surgery. We make seven recommendations to improve implementation. Further evaluation of implementation strategies alongside clinical effectiveness in future studies is essential. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTRN12620000096954 , 04/02/2020.
Efficacy of Prehabilitation Including Exercise on Postoperative Outcomes Following Abdominal Cancer Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
(FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2021-03-19)
Objectives: This systematic review set out to identify, evaluate and synthesise the evidence examining the effect of prehabilitation including exercise on postoperative outcomes following abdominal cancer surgery. Methods: Five electronic databases (MEDLINE 1946-2020, EMBASE 1947-2020, CINAHL 1937-2020, PEDro 1999-2020, and Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials 1991-2020) were systematically searched (until August 2020) for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the effects of prehabilitation interventions in patients undergoing abdominal cancer surgery. This review included any form of prehabilitation either unimodal or multimodal that included whole body and/or respiratory exercises as a stand-alone intervention or in addition to other prehabilitation interventions (such as nutrition and psychology) compared to standard care. Results: Twenty-two studies were included in the systematic review and 21 studies in the meta-analysis. There was moderate quality of evidence that multimodal prehabilitation improves pre-operative functional capacity as measured by 6 min walk distance (Mean difference [MD] 33.09 metres, 95% CI 17.69-48.50; p = <0.01) but improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness such as preoperative oxygen consumption at peak exercise (VO2 peak; MD 1.74 mL/kg/min, 95% CI -0.03-3.50; p = 0.05) and anaerobic threshold (AT; MD 1.21 mL/kg/min, 95% CI -0.34-2.76; p = 0.13) were not significant. A reduction in hospital length of stay (MD 3.68 days, 95% CI 0.92-6.44; p = 0.009) was observed but no effect was observed for postoperative complications (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.81, 95% CI 0.55-1.18; p = 0.27), pulmonary complications (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.28-1.01; p = 0.05), hospital re-admission (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.61-1.90; p = 0.81) or postoperative mortality (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.43-2.09, p = 0.90). Conclusion: Multimodal prehabilitation improves preoperative functional capacity with reduction in hospital length of stay. This supports the need for ongoing research on innovative cost-effective prehabilitation approaches, research within large multicentre studies to verify this effect and to explore implementation strategies within clinical practise.
Barriers and facilitators of evidence-based management of patients with bacterial infections among general dental practitioners: a theory-informed interview study
BACKGROUND: General dental practitioners (GDPs) regularly prescribe antibiotics to manage dental infections although most infections can be treated successfully by local measures. Published guidance to support GDPs to make appropriate prescribing decisions exists but there continues to be wide variation in dental antibiotic prescribing. An interview study was conducted as part of the Reducing Antibiotic Prescribing in Dentistry (RAPiD) trial to understand the barriers and facilitators of using local measures instead of prescribing antibiotics to manage bacterial infections. METHODS: Thirty semi-structured one-to-one telephone interviews were conducted using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Responses were coded into domains of the TDF and sub-themes. Priority domains (high frequency: ≥50 % interviewees discussed) relevant to behaviour change were identified as targets for future intervention efforts and mapped onto 'intervention functions' of the Behaviour Change Wheel system. RESULTS: Five domains (behavioural regulation, social influences, reinforcement, environmental context and resources, and beliefs about consequences) with seven sub-themes were identified as targets for future intervention. All participants had knowledge about the evidence-based management of bacterial infections, but they reported difficulties in following this due to patient factors and time management. Lack of time was found to significantly influence their decision processes with regard to performing local measures. Beliefs about their capabilities to overcome patient influence, beliefs that performing local measures would impact on subsequent appointment times as well as there being no incentives for performing local measures were also featured. Though no knowledge or basic skills issues were identified, the participants suggested some continuous professional development programmes (e.g. time management, an overview of published guidance) to address some of the barriers. The domain results suggest a number of intervention functions through which future interventions could change GDPs' antibiotic prescribing for bacterial infections: imparting skills through training, providing an example for GDPs to imitate (i.e. modelling) or creating the expectation of a reward (i.e. incentivisation). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first theoretically informed study to identify barriers and facilitators of evidence-based management of patients with bacterial infections among GDPs. A pragmatic approach is needed to address the modifiable barriers in future interventions intended to change dentists' inappropriate prescribing behaviour.
Prevalence and impact of bladder and bowel disorders in women with breast cancer: A systematic review with meta-analysis.
BACKGROUND: One of the consequences of breast cancer treatments may be the onset of new, or aggravation of preexisting bladder and bowel disorders. However, the presence and impact of these disorders in women with breast cancer are poorly documented. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the prevalence, incidence and impact of bladder and bowel disorders in women undergoing breast cancer treatment. METHODS: A systematic search of six databases was conducted. Pooled prevalence rates and impact of bladder and bowel disorders were calculated using random-effects models. RESULTS: A total of 32 studies met the inclusion criteria, and 17 studies were included in the meta-analyses. The pooled estimate of women who experienced bladder disorders following sensitivity analysis, which removed one study reporting a result that deviated from the pooled estimate, was 38% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 32%-44%; I2 = 98%; n = 4584). The impact of bladder and bowel disorders on women's daily lives was relatively low (bladder [scale: 0-4]: mean: 0.8; 95% CI: 0.4-1.1; I2 = 99%; n = 4908; bowel [scale: 0-100]: mean 14.2; 95% CI: 9.4-19; I2 = 95%; n = 1024). CONCLUSION: This is the first study to comprehensively document the magnitude of bladder and bowel disorders in the breast cancer population. This meta-analysis found that women with breast cancer had a higher prevalence of urinary incontinence (38%) compared to women without breast cancer (21%). Given the extent and impact of our findings, screening and management of bladder and bowel disorders may be indicated in women with breast cancer to improve their health-related quality of life.
A Blue-Enriched, Increased Intensity Light Intervention to Improve Alertness and Performance in Rotating Night Shift Workers in an Operational Setting
(DOVE MEDICAL PRESS LTD, 2021-01-01)
Purpose: This study examined the efficacy of a lighting intervention that increased both light intensity and short-wavelength (blue) light content to improve alertness, performance and mood in night shift workers in a chemical plant. Patients and Methods: During rostered night shifts, 28 workers (46.0±10.8 years; 27 male) were exposed to two light conditions each for two consecutive nights (~19:00-07:00 h) in a counterbalanced repeated measures design: traditional-spectrum lighting set at pre-study levels (43 lux, 4000 K) versus higher intensity, blue-enriched lighting (106 lux, 17,000 K), equating to a 4.5-fold increase in melanopic illuminance (24 to 108 melanopic illuminance). Participants completed the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, subjective mood ratings, and the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) every 2-4 hours during the night shift. Results: A significant main effect of time indicated KSS, PVT mean reaction time, number of PVT lapses (reaction times > 500 ms) and subjective tension, misery and depression worsened over the course of the night shift (p<0.05). Percentage changes in KSS (p<0.05, partial η2=0.14) and PVT mean reaction time (p<0.05, partial η2=0.19) and lapses (p<0.05, partial η2=0.17) in the middle and end of night shift, expressed relative to start of shift, were significantly improved during the lighting intervention compared to the traditional lighting condition. Self-reported mood did not significantly differ between conditions (p>0.05). Conclusion: Our findings, showing improvements in alertness and performance with exposure to blue-enriched, increased intensity light, provide support for light to be used as a countermeasure for impaired alertness in night shift work settings.
Light-based methods for predicting circadian phase in delayed sleep-wake phase disorder
(NATURE RESEARCH, 2021-05-25)
Methods for predicting circadian phase have been developed for healthy individuals. It is unknown whether these methods generalize to clinical populations, such as delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD), where circadian timing is associated with functional outcomes. This study evaluated two methods for predicting dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) in 154 DSWPD patients using ~ 7 days of sleep-wake and light data: a dynamic model and a statistical model. The dynamic model has been validated in healthy individuals under both laboratory and field conditions. The statistical model was developed for this dataset and used a multiple linear regression of light exposure during phase delay/advance portions of the phase response curve, as well as sleep timing and demographic variables. Both models performed comparably well in predicting DLMO. The dynamic model predicted DLMO with root mean square error of 68 min, with predictions accurate to within ± 1 h in 58% of participants and ± 2 h in 95%. The statistical model predicted DLMO with root mean square error of 57 min, with predictions accurate to within ± 1 h in 75% of participants and ± 2 h in 96%. We conclude that circadian phase prediction from light data is a viable technique for improving screening, diagnosis, and treatment of DSWPD.
Geriatric Rehabilitation Inpatients Roam at Home! A Matched Cohort Study of Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Home-Based and Hospital-Based Settings.
(Elsevier BV, 2021-05-20)
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior in geriatric rehabilitation patients receiving care in the home-based compared to the hospital-based setting. DESIGN: Observational matched cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Home-based (patient's home) or hospital-based (ward) geriatric rehabilitation was delivered to inpatients within the REStORing health of acutely unwell adulTs (RESORT) observational, longitudinal cohort of the Royal Melbourne Hospital (Melbourne, Victoria, Australia). METHODS: Patients were asked to wear ActivPAL4 accelerometers for 1 week and were assessed by a comprehensive geriatric assessment at admission, discharge, and followed up after 3 months. Hospital-based patients were matched to home-based patients for sex and baseline physical function [Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), activities (instrumental) of daily living, and Clinical Frailty Scale]. Differences in patient characteristics and physical activity (total, standing and walking durations, number of steps and sit-to stand transitions) and sedentary behavior (total, sitting and lying durations) were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 159 patients were included: 18 home-based [mean age: 81.9 ± 8.6 years, 38.9% female, median (interquartile range [IQR]) SPPB: 7.0 (5.0-9.0)] and 141 hospital-based [mean age: 82.9 ± 7.8 years, 57.4% female, median (IQR) SPPB: 1.0 (0.0-4.0)] patients, of whom 18 were matched [mean age: 80.1 ± 7.4 years, 38.9% female, median (IQR) SPPB: 6.5 (4.8-10.0)]. Median physical activity measures were consistently higher in home-based patients compared to the total group of hospital-based patients. After matching, physical activity measures remained >2.4 times higher and were significantly different for all measures (total physical activity, standing and walking durations, and steps) except for sit-to-stand transitions. Sedentary behaviors were similar with home-based patients spending non-significantly more time sitting but significantly less time lying than hospital-based patients (matched and total). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Home-based inpatients are more physically active than hospital-based inpatients independent of matching for sex and baseline physical function, which supports home-based geriatric rehabilitation.
Implementing a psychosocial intervention DIALOG+ for patients with psychotic disorders in low and middle income countries in South Eastern Europe: protocol for a hybrid effectiveness-implementation cluster randomized clinical trial (IMPULSE)
(Walter de Gruyter GmbH, 2020-05-01)
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title> <jats:sec> <jats:title>Objectives</jats:title> <jats:p>Psychotic disorders have large treatment gap in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in South-Eastern Europe, where up to 45% of affected people do not receive care for their condition. This study will assess the implementation of a generic psychosocial intervention called DIALOG+ in mental health care services and its effectiveness at improving patients’ clinical and social outcomes.</jats:p> </jats:sec> <jats:sec> <jats:title>Methods</jats:title> <jats:p>This is a protocol for a multi-country, pragmatic, hybrid effectiveness–implementation, cluster-randomised, clinical trial. The trial aims to recruit 80 clinicians and 400 patients across 5 South-Eastern European LMICs: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo*, Montenegro, Republic of North Macedonia and Serbia. Clusters are clinicians working with patients with psychosis, and each clinician will deliver the intervention to five patients. After patient baseline assessments, clinicians will be randomly assigned to either the DIALOG+ intervention or treatment as usual, with an allocation ratio of 1:1. The intervention will be delivered six times over 12 months during routine clinical meetings. TThe primary outcome measure is the quality of life at 12 months [Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life (MANSA)]; the secondary outcomes include mental health symptoms [Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS), Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI)], satisfaction with services [Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8)] and economic costs at 12 months [based on Client Service Receipt Inventory (CSRI), EQ-5D-5L and Recovering Quality of Life (ReQOL-10)]. The study will assess the intervention fidelity and the experience of clinicians and patients’ about implementing DIALOG+ in real-life mental health care settings. In the health economic assessment, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is calculated with effectiveness measured by quality-adjusted life year. Data will also be collected on sustainability and reach to inform guidelines for potentially scaling up and implementing the intervention widely. Conclusion: The study is expected to generate new scientific knowledge on the treatment of people with psychosis in health care systems with limited resources. The learning from LMICs could potentially help other countries to expand the access to care and alleviate the suffering of patients with psychosis and their families.</jats:p> <jats:p>Trial registration: ISRCTN 11913964</jats:p> </jats:sec>
Urinary and anal incontinence among female gymnasts and cheerleaders-bother and associated factors. A cross-sectional study
(SPRINGER LONDON LTD, 2021-02-13)
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Artistic gymnastics, team gymnastics and cheerleading are sports including high-impact activities. It is presumed that the athletes' pelvic floor must be functioning well to prevent urinary (UI) and anal incontinence (AI) during sports. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for UI and AI in female artistic gymnasts, team gymnasts and cheerleaders; the influence of UI and AI on daily living and sport performance; and the athletes' knowledge about the pelvic floor muscles (PFM). METHODS: All female athletes ≥ 12 years of age competing in ≥ 1 National Championship in artistic gymnastics, team gymnastics or cheerleading in 2018/2019 were invited. International Consensus on Incontinence Questionnaires were used to assess the prevalence/bother of UI and AI. RESULTS: Among the 319 gymnasts and cheerleaders who participated, the prevalence of UI and AI was 67% and 84%, respectively. Age, training ≥ 4 days/week and straining to void were significantly associated with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and years of training with AI. Eighty-three percent of athletes with SUI reported a negative effect on sports performance, 22% would occasionally avoid training or specific exercises because of leakage, and 28% used pads for protection. Forty-one percent of the athletes had never heard about the PFM, and 74% reported an interest in PFM training to prevent/treat UI or AI. CONCLUSIONS: UI and AI were prevalent in female gymnasts and cheerleaders, and SUI negatively influenced sport performance. The athletes' knowledge about the PFM was limited.