Melbourne School of Health Sciences Collected Works - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 221
Urinary and anal incontinence among female gymnasts and cheerleaders-bother and associated factors. A cross-sectional study
(SPRINGER LONDON LTD, 2021-02-13)
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Artistic gymnastics, team gymnastics and cheerleading are sports including high-impact activities. It is presumed that the athletes' pelvic floor must be functioning well to prevent urinary (UI) and anal incontinence (AI) during sports. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for UI and AI in female artistic gymnasts, team gymnasts and cheerleaders; the influence of UI and AI on daily living and sport performance; and the athletes' knowledge about the pelvic floor muscles (PFM). METHODS: All female athletes ≥ 12 years of age competing in ≥ 1 National Championship in artistic gymnastics, team gymnastics or cheerleading in 2018/2019 were invited. International Consensus on Incontinence Questionnaires were used to assess the prevalence/bother of UI and AI. RESULTS: Among the 319 gymnasts and cheerleaders who participated, the prevalence of UI and AI was 67% and 84%, respectively. Age, training ≥ 4 days/week and straining to void were significantly associated with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and years of training with AI. Eighty-three percent of athletes with SUI reported a negative effect on sports performance, 22% would occasionally avoid training or specific exercises because of leakage, and 28% used pads for protection. Forty-one percent of the athletes had never heard about the PFM, and 74% reported an interest in PFM training to prevent/treat UI or AI. CONCLUSIONS: UI and AI were prevalent in female gymnasts and cheerleaders, and SUI negatively influenced sport performance. The athletes' knowledge about the PFM was limited.
Description and Effectiveness of Communication Partner Training in TBI: A Systematic Review
(LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2021-01-01)
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the current evidence on communication partner training and its effectiveness on outcomes for people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and/or their communication partners. METHODS: Information sources: Systematic searches of 9 databases (AMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, Medline/EBSCOHOST, PsycINFO, PsycBITE, PsycARTICLES, PubMed, and Scopus) from database inception to February 2019. Eligibility criteria: Empirical studies on interventions for adult communication partners where the primary focus of the program (>50%) was on improving communication skills of people with TBI and/or communication partners. Data: Participants, characteristics of the training, outcome measures, and findings. Risk of bias: Standard checklists were used for methodological quality (PEDro, ROBiN-T) and intervention description (TIDieR). Synthesis: Narrative synthesis and effect sizes (Cohen's d) for group-level studies. OUTCOMES: Ten articles (describing 8 studies) met eligibility criteria: 3 randomized controlled trials, 2 nonrandomized controlled trials, and 3 single-case experimental designs. Studies included a total of 258 people with TBI and 328 communication partners; however, all but one study had fewer than 65 participants. Methodological quality varied and intervention description was poor. Three studies in the final synthesis (n = 41 communication partners, n = 36 people with TBI) reported positive intervention effects. Effect sizes in group studies were d = 0.80 to 1.13 for TBI and d = 1.16 to 2.09 for communication partners. CONCLUSIONS: The articles provided encouraging, though limited, evidence for training communication partners. Greater methodological rigor, more clearly described interventions, and consistent use of outcome measures and follow-up after treatment are needed. Further research on this topic is warranted.
Feasibility of establishing a rehabilitation programme in a Vietnamese intensive care unit
(PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2021-03-03)
Increasing numbers of people are surviving critical illness throughout the world, but survivorship is associated with long-term disability. In high-income settings physical rehabilitation is commonly employed to counter this and improve outcomes. These utilize highly-trained multidisciplinary teams and are unavailable and unaffordable in most low and middle income countries (LMICs). We aimed to design a sustainable intensive care unit (ICU) rehabilitation program and to evaluate its feasibility in a LMIC setting. In this project patients, care-givers and experts co-designed an innovative rehabilitation programme that can be delivered by non-expert ICU staff and family care-givers in a LMIC. We implemented this programme in adult patient with patients with tetanus at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City over a 5-month period, evaluating the programme's acceptability, enablers and barriers. A 6-phase programme was designed, supported by written and video material. The programme was piloted in total of 30 patients. Rehabilitation was commenced a median 14 (inter quartile range (IQR) 10-18) days after admission. Each patient received a median of 25.5 (IQR 22.8-34.8) rehabilitation sessions out of a median 27 (22.8-35) intended (prescribed) sessions. There were no associated adverse events. Patients and staff found rehabilitation to be beneficial, enhanced relationships between carers, patients and staff and was deemed to be a positive step towards recovery and return to work. The main barrier was staff time. The programme was feasible for patients with tetanus and viewed positively by staff and participants. Staff time was identified as the major barrier to ongoing implementation.
Changing behaviour, 'more or less': do implementation and de-implementation interventions include different behaviour change techniques?
BACKGROUND: Decreasing ineffective or harmful healthcare practices (de-implementation) may require different approaches than those used to promote uptake of effective practices (implementation). Few psychological theories differentiate between processes involved in decreasing, versus increasing, behaviour. However, it is unknown whether implementation and de-implementation interventions already use different approaches. We used the behaviour change technique (BCT) taxonomy (version 1) (which includes 93 BCTs organised into 12 groupings) to investigate whether implementation and de-implementation interventions for clinician behaviour change use different BCTs. METHODS: Intervention descriptions in 181 articles from three systematic reviews in the Cochrane Library were coded for (a) implementation versus de-implementation and (b) intervention content (BCTs) using the BCT taxonomy (v1). BCT frequencies were calculated and compared using Pearson's chi-squared (χ2), Yates' continuity correction and Fisher's exact test, where appropriate. Identified BCTs were ranked according to frequency and rankings for de-implementation versus implementation interventions were compared and described. RESULTS: Twenty-nine and 25 BCTs were identified in implementation and de-implementation interventions respectively. Feedback on behaviour was identified more frequently in implementation than de-implementation (Χ2(2, n=178) = 15.693, p = .000057). Three BCTs were identified more frequently in de-implementation than implementation: Behaviour substitution (Χ2(2, n=178) = 14.561, p = .0001; Yates' continuity correction); Monitoring of behaviour by others without feedback (Χ2(2, n=178) = 16.187, p = .000057; Yates' continuity correction); and Restructuring social environment (p = .000273; Fisher's 2-sided exact test). CONCLUSIONS: There were some significant differences between BCTs reported in implementation and de-implementation interventions suggesting that researchers may have implicit theories about different BCTs required for de-implementation and implementation. These findings do not imply that the BCTs identified as targeting implementation or de-implementation are effective, rather simply that they were more frequently used. These findings require replication for a wider range of clinical behaviours. The continued accumulation of additional knowledge and evidence into whether implementation and de-implementation is different will serve to better inform researchers and, subsequently, improve methods for intervention design.
Repeated analyses of national clinical audit reports demonstrate improvements in feedback methods.
(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-11-25)
BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in the impact of national clinical audit programmes on the quality of healthcare. There is also an evolving evidence-base for enhancing the design and delivery of audit and feedback. We assessed the extent to which a sample of UK national clinical audit feedback reports met a set of good practice criteria over three time points. METHODS: We undertook three cross-sectional content analyses. We developed good practice criteria for the content and delivery of feedback based upon evidence, behavioural theory and expert opinion. We applied these to a feedback reports from 23 national audits listed on the Healthcare Quality Improvement Partnership (HQIP) website in November 2015. We repeated our assessments in January 2017 for 20 repeat feedback reports, after HQIP had published reporting guidance for national audits, and in August 2019 for a further 14 repeat feedback reports. We verified our assessments, where possible, with audit leads. RESULTS: Feedback reports consistently included strengths at baseline, including past or planned repeated audit cycles (21; 91%), stating the importance of the topic in relation to patient care (22; 93%), using multi-modal data presentation (23; 100%), and summarising key findings (23; 100%). We observed improvements over subsequent assessments, so that by 2019, at least 13 out of 14 (93%) feedback reports presented easily identifiable key findings and recommendations, linked recommendations to audit standards, and proposed easily identifiable action plans. Whilst the use of regional comparators did not improve, audit leads highlighted that programmes now provide local data via additional means. The main shortcoming was the time lag between data collection and feedback; none of the 14 reports assessed in 2019 presented performance data less than 6 months old. Audit leads highlighted that some of these data might be available via programme websites. CONCLUSION: We identified increased adherence to good practice in feedback by national clinical audit programmes that may enhance their impact on service delivery and outcomes. There is scope for improvement, especially in the recency of performance data. With further refinements, a criterion-based assessment offers an efficient means of monitoring the quality of national clinical audit feedback reports.
Exploring the Use of Two Brief Fatigue Screening Tools in Cancer Outpatient Clinics
(SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2021-01-01)
PURPOSE: Cancer fatigue guidelines recommend routine fatigue screening, with further assessment for people reporting moderate to severe fatigue. There is neither a gold-standard, nor a broadly accepted screening method, and knowledge about the impact of screening on care processes is limited. This study aimed to explore the feasibility of 2 fatigue screening methods and current clinical practice in cancer outpatient clinics. METHODS: Hospital outpatients attending cancer clinics during 1 week completed a five-item survey: a numeric scale for current tiredness, 2 categorical pictorial scales rating tiredness last week and the impact of fatigue (Fatigue Pictogram), screening tool preference and help needed for survey completion. Participant demographics and fatigue documentation by clinical staff for that appointment were extracted from medical records. Analyses used descriptive statistics. Groups were compared using appropriate statistical tests. RESULTS: Over 75% of participants rated their fatigue consistently as mild or significant on both screening tools. Of 1709 eligible outpatients, 533 (31%) completed the survey. Records were audited for 430 (81%) identifiable participants. Over half of the participants reported moderate or severe tiredness either "now" (237, 57%) and/or "last week" (226, 53%). Clinician documentation of fatigue seldom matched self-reports. Fatigue was rated as severe by 103 participants (24%), yet was noted in only 21 (20%) of these individuals' clinical notes. Both screening tools were equally preferred. CONCLUSION: The numeric rating scale and Fatigue Pictogram are equally applicable for screening fatigue in cancer outpatient care. There is a high prevalence of clinically significant fatigue in a hospital outpatient setting that is not documented. Adequate care pathways for further management should be established alongside fatigue screening.
Does prospective acceptability of an intervention influence refusal to participate in a randomised controlled trial? An interview study
(ELSEVIER INC, 2021-03-01)
Background: The generalizability of findings of Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) is undermined by low or biased recruitment. Reasons for participant refusal are infrequently reported in published literature. Aims: To apply the Theoretical Framework of Acceptability (TFA) to: (1) explore patient-reported reasons for declining to participate in a RCT comparing a new service model (patient-initiated appointments) with standard care (appointments scheduled by clinician) for managing blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm; (2) to explore associations between decliners' perceptions of acceptability and non-participation. Method: Eligible patients (n = 242) were approached to participate in the trial. Phase 1: decliners provided a brief reason for refusal. Reasons were analysed descriptively and reviewed against TFA constructs. Phase 2: Consecutive decliners participated in short semi-structured interviews, to explore their reasons for refusal in more depth. Interviews were transcribed and analysed, with the TFA as a coding framework. Results: Eighty-seven (36%) eligible patients refused trial participation; all provided a reason. From interviews with 15 decliners (17%), four key beliefs about acceptability were identified: happy with standard care (n = 41) (49%), anticipated burden of patient-initiated service, lack of confidence in ability to engage with new service and uncertainties about effectiveness of new service. Two themes reflected non-TFA factors: trial participation a low priority and burden of completing trial documentation. Conclusion: Reasons for refusal trial participation included: (a) reasons directly associated with intervention acceptability, and (b) reasons associated with trial participation more broadly. The TFA facilitated identification of problematic aspects of the new appointment booking system which could be addressed to enhance acceptability.
A non-randomised pilot study of the Solutions for Medication Adherence Problems (S-MAP) intervention in community pharmacies to support older adults adhere to multiple medications.
(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-01-07)
BACKGROUND: Older patients prescribed multiple medications commonly experience difficulties with adherence. High-quality evidence on interventions targeting older patients is lacking. Theory is rarely used to tailor adherence solutions. This study aimed to pilot test a novel intervention, developed using the Theoretical Domains Framework, which guides community pharmacists in identifying adherence barriers and delivering tailored solutions (behaviour change techniques). Key study procedures (e.g. recruitment, data collection) for a future randomised controlled trial (cRCT) were also assessed. METHODS: Using purposive sampling, this non-randomised pilot study aimed to recruit 12 community pharmacies (six in Northern Ireland; six in London, England). Pharmacists were trained to deliver the intervention to non-adherent older patients (maximum 10 per pharmacy; target n = 60-120) aged ≥ 65 years (reduced to 50 years due to recruitment challenges) and prescribed ≥ 4 regular medicines. The intervention, guided by an iPad web-application, was delivered over 3-4 face-to-face or telephone sessions, tailored to specific barriers to adherence. We assessed the feasibility of collecting adherence data (primary outcome: self-report and dispensing records), health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and unplanned hospitalisations (secondary outcomes) at baseline and 6-months. The final decision on progressing to a cRCT, using pre-defined 'stop-amend-go' criteria, is presented. RESULTS: Fifteen pharmacists from 12 pharmacies were recruited and trained. One pharmacy subsequently dropped out. Sixty patients were recruited (meeting the 'Amend' progression criteria), with 56 receiving the intervention. Adherence barriers were identified for 55 patients (98%) and a wide range of behaviour change solutions delivered (median: 5 per patient). Self-report and dispensing adherence data were available for 37 (61.7%) and 44 (73.3%) patients, respectively. HRQOL data were available for 35 (58.3%) patients. GP-reported and self-reported hospitalisations data were available for 47 (78.3%) and 23 (38.3%) patients, respectively. All progression concepts were met (nine 'Go' and three 'Amend' criteria). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the feasibility of key study procedures (e.g. pharmacy recruitment) and delivery of a tailored adherence intervention in community pharmacies. However, modifications are required to enhance issues identified with patient recruitment, retention and missing data. A future definitive cRCT will explore the effectiveness of the intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN, ISRCTN73831533 , Registered 12 January 2018.
Using the Technology Acceptance Model to Identify Factors That Predict Likelihood to Adopt Tele-Neurorehabilitation
(FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2020-12-02)
Tele-neurorehabilitation has the potential to reduce accessibility barriers and enhance patient outcomes through a more seamless continuum of care. A growing number of studies have found that tele-neurorehabilitation produces equivalent results to usual care for a variety of outcomes including activities of daily living and health related quality of life. Despite the potential of tele-neurorehabilitation, this model of care has failed to achieve mainstream adoption. Little is known about feasibility and acceptability of tele-neurorehabilitation and most published studies do not use a validated model to guide and evaluate implementation. The technology acceptance model (TAM) was developed 20 years ago and is one of the most widely used theoretical frameworks for predicting an individual's likelihood to adopt and use new technology. The TAM3 further built on the original model by incorporating additional elements from human decision making such as computer anxiety. In this perspective, we utilize the TAM3 to systematically map the findings from existing published studies, in order to explore the determinants of adoption of tele-neurorehabilitation by both stroke survivors and prescribing clinicians. We present evidence suggesting that computer self-efficacy and computer anxiety are significant predictors of an individual's likelihood to use tele-neurorehabilitation. Understanding what factors support or hinder uptake of tele-neurorehabilitation can assist in translatability and sustainable adoption of this technology. If we are to shift tele-neurorehabilitation from the research domain to become a mainstream health sector activity, key stakeholders must address the barriers that have consistently hindered adoption.
Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Associated Risk Factors in Patients With Lung Cancer: A Longitudinal Observational Study
(SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2018-12-01)
PURPOSE: This study aimed to measure symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Chinese patients following a new diagnosis of lung cancer. Secondary aims were to explore factors at diagnosis that may predict PTSD symptoms at 6 months. METHODS: This was a prospective longitudinal observational study that included 93 patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer. PTSD symptomology was assessed using the PTSD Checklist Civilian Version (PCL-C) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was assessed with the European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer questionnaire. Measures were completed at diagnosis and 6 months. RESULTS: No patient had PTSD at baseline or 6 months as measured by a score of ⩾50 in the PCL-C. However, at diagnosis, 44% of patients had "mild" symptoms of PTSD. At 6 months, 64% of patients had "mild" and 8% had "moderate" PTSD symptoms. PTSD symptom scores significantly worsened over 6 months (mean difference [95% CI] = 7.2 [5.4 to 9.0]). Six months after diagnosis, higher PTSD scores were seen in people who at diagnosis were younger ( P = .003), had a lower smoking pack history ( P = .012), displayed less sedentary behavior ( P < .005), or initially had worse cancer symptoms, including fatigue ( P = .001) and poorer HRQoL ( P = .004). CONCLUSIONS: Mild PTSD symptoms are common in patients with lung cancer 6 months after treatment; however, a full diagnosis of PTSD is uncommon. Screening for PTSD symptoms may be considered for at-risk patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer.
Specifying active components of educational interventions to promote adherence to treatment in glaucoma patients: application of a taxonomy of behavior change techniques
(DOVE MEDICAL PRESS LTD, 2015-01-01)
PURPOSE: In response to recent calls for clearer specification of behavior change interventions, the purpose of this study was to apply a system of taxonomy for behavior change techniques (BCTs) to two educational interventions to improve adherence to glaucoma eye drops. Clarification of constituent BCTs will promote easy and reliable application of the interventions in clinical settings and research. METHODS: A published taxonomy of BCTs was used to code two interventions (group and individual) to increase adherence to eye drops. Intervention materials were coded by assigning a BCT label to each text unit. We noted the frequency with which each BCT occurred, compared the interventions in terms of the BCTs that were delivered, and identified whether the taxonomy was sufficient to describe the intervention components. RESULTS: The individual intervention consisted of 94 text units. Fifty-seven were identified as targeting behavior change and coded using 18 BCTs, many coded more than once. In the group intervention, 165 units of text were identified, and 125 were coded using 22 BCTs. The most frequently coded BCT was "provide information about behavior-health link" in the group intervention and "prompt barrier identification" in the individual intervention. The interventions included similar BCTs. All text units targeting behavior change were codable into BCTs. CONCLUSION: The similarity of the two interventions may have implications for the cost-effectiveness of the interventions. The taxonomy was found sufficient to describe both interventions. This level of specification can be used to ensure that precisely the same intervention that has been pilot tested is reproducible in the clinical setting and in any further research.