Melbourne School of Health Sciences Collected Works - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 261
Evaluative language in physiotherapy practice: How does it contribute to the therapeutic relationship?
(PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2015-10-01)
In physiotherapy, the therapeutic relationship--in which a therapist and patient work together to achieve treatment goals--is increasingly seen as the foundation of patient care. How the therapeutic relationship is established and enacted, however, is not well understood. One way to better understand the nature of the relationship is to examine how therapists and patients evaluate and inform each other about the patient's physical capacity, sensation, and emotions. As the patient and therapist's talk is the primary means to realise and exchange such evaluations, our focus is on evaluative language used by the therapist and patient in their interactions. The aim of this paper is to examine the language and function of evaluation in physiotherapy consultations. The study is a discourse analytic one using Appraisal Theory. In Appraisal Theory, language resources that speakers use to construe evaluations such as emotions, judgments of behaviour and aesthetics are expressed as a system. The sub-systems are Affect (expressing emotion), Judgment (assessing behaviour) and Appreciation (evaluating processes and objects). The data are a convenience sample of 18 consultations from two cultural and therapeutic settings: primary healthcare (Sweden, Australia); and hospital rehabilitation (Australia). The findings show that both patient and therapist utilise all sub-systems of Appraisal; however, use of the sub-systems by the therapist and patient differs functionally. Judgment and Appreciation play a central role in therapists' co-construction of patients' physical history and presenting problem. In contrast, patient Affect evaluations, mainly to do with emotions about loss of capacity and pain, are generally not followed up by the therapist. The findings suggest that while patients engage with the therapeutic relationship from a clinical and interpersonal perspective, therapists are more narrowly focused on their own clinical tasks. The study findings have implications for understandings of the therapeutic relationship in physiotherapy and can inform teaching.
Measuring listening effort expended by adolescents and young adults with unilateral or bilateral cochlear implants or normal hearing.
(Informa UK Limited, 2013-06)
OBJECTIVES: To compare the listening effort expended by adolescents and young adults using implants versus their peers with normal hearing when these two groups are achieving similar speech perception scores. The study also aimed to compare listening effort expended by adolescents and young adults with bilateral cochlear implants when using two implants versus one. METHODS: Eight participants with bilateral cochlear implants and eight with normal hearing aged 10-22 years were included. Using a dual-task paradigm, participants repeated consonant-nucleus-consonant (CNC) words presented in noise and performed a visual matching task. Signal-to-noise ratios were set individually to ensure the word perception task was challenging but manageable for all. Reduced performance on the visual task in the dual-task condition relative to the single-task condition was indicative of the effort expended on the listening task. RESULTS: The cochlear implant group, when using bilateral implants, expended similar levels of listening effort to the normal hearing group when the two groups were achieving similar speech perception scores. For three individuals with cochlear implants, and the group, listening effort was significantly reduced with bilateral compared to unilateral implants. DISCUSSION: The similar amount of listening effort expended by the two groups indicated that a higher signal-to-noise ratio overcame limitations in the auditory information received or processed by the participants with implants. This study is the first to objectively compare listening effort using two versus one cochlear implant. The results provide objective evidence that reduced listening effort is a benefit that some individuals gain from bilateral cochlear implants.
Adaptation of the speech, spatial, and qualities of hearing scale for use with children, parents, and teachers.
(Informa UK Limited, 2013-06)
Subjective assessment of hearing ability in everyday life complements more objective forms of evaluation. A broad evaluation of the additional benefit provided to children by a second bilateral cochlear implant required such an assessment. As no paediatric tool provided detailed evaluation of performance in the areas of daily listening in which benefit was likely to be demonstrated, an adult questionnaire was adapted. Items of the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ) focused mainly, although not exclusively, on hearing functions requiring the binaural system. The adapted child, parent, and teacher versions of the SSQ retained the structure of rating listening performance in everyday scenarios across the domains of speech perception, spatial hearing, and other qualities of hearing. Modifications were minimized, although deletion of some items and wording changes were required, and some subdomains could not be included. Observation periods were introduced so that parents and teachers observe performance prior to providing ratings. The suggested minimum age is 11 years for the child version and 5 years for the parent and teacher versions. Instructions indicate interview-style administration in which interpretation of the described listening scenarios can be clarified and use of the ruler-style response format demonstrated. Researchers applying the SSQ for parents have reported higher performance ratings for bilateral over unilateral cochlear implants, particularly in the spatial hearing domain. Further research should provide evidence for the target age range, compare child and parent responses, and evaluate modifications for use with younger children.
Adapting to bilateral cochlear implants: early post-operative device use by children receiving sequential or simultaneous implants at or before 3.5 years.
(Informa UK Limited, 2012-05)
OBJECTIVE: To classify adaptation difficulties, or lack thereof, experienced by a clinical population of young bilateral cochlear implant recipients. METHOD: Forty-six of the first 48 children sequentially or simultaneously implanted at ≤3.5 years at the Melbourne Clinic participated. Classification into categories was based on daily use of both implants at 2 months post-switch-on, with follow-up information obtained at 12 months. RESULTS: The 37 Category 1 children wore both implants full time at 2 months, and 35 still did so at 12 months. The two Category 2 children used both implants 4 hours daily at 2 months, but achieved full-time use within 12 months. The five Category 3 children used both implants for ≤1 hour, with only three achieving full-time use within 12 months. The two Category 4 children did not use two implants at 2 months, and one still did not wear both implants at 12 months. There were weak/modest but significant relationships between category and each of time between implants and age at bilateral implantation. DISCUSSION: Ninety-five percent of simultaneously and 70% of sequentially implanted children demonstrated full-time use within 2 months, and nearly all continued to do so at 12 months. Full-time use maximizes opportunities to develop listening skills. Monitoring device use is necessary for all children, especially when significant change occurs. For those experiencing difficulty in adapting, bilateral implant use usually increased over 12 months. Pre-operative counselling must include discussion of possible adaptation difficulties and raise the potential negative influence of age at bilateral implantation and time between implants.
Can adolescents and young adults with prelingual hearing loss benefit from a second, sequential cochlear implant?
(TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2010-05-01)
This study aimed to determine if adolescents/young adults gained additional perceptual benefit from sequential bilateral cochlear implants within 12 months, and to document adaptation to the second implant. Assessments comprised a pediatric version of The Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ), anecdotal reports of device use and daily listening, and the Adaptive Spondee Discrimination Test (AdSpon). All nine participants achieved full-time use of, a preference for, and superior daily listening with, bilateral implants. Eight participants were comfortable using the second implant alone, and two achieved similar daily listening with either implant alone. SSQ ratings were higher post-operatively for the majority of participants. AdSpon performance was superior bilaterally for five participants with noise ipsilateral to the first implant, but not contralateral. Unilateral performance with either implant was similar for one participant. A second implant may provide additional benefit up to 19 years of age, even with congenital hearing loss and >16 years between implants. Families and clinicians should understand the aspects of second-implant candidacy and post-operative use that are unique to adolescents/young adults.
How we do it: clinical management of the child receiving a second, bilateral cochlear implant.
(Informa UK Limited, 2009-06)
For children to gain maximum benefit from a second, bilateral cochlear implant clinicians need to be aware of the special needs of the family and child, and to adapt their clinical management appropriately. This article describes how the situation of the family considering a second implant is different, and how the decision to be made differs from that for a first implant. The information specific to sequential implants that should be provided so families can make an informed decision is reviewed. Programming issues unique to sequential bilateral cochlear implants are discussed. Finally, information is provided on how children may respond post-operatively, and what can be done to promote bilateral device use and the development of listening skills with the new implant.
CHRISTMAS 2015: PROFESSIONAL CONSIDERATIONS AVERT(2) (a very early rehabilitation trial, a very effective reproductive trigger): retrospective observational analysis of the number of babies born to trial staff
(BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2015-12-11)
OBJECTIVE: To report the number of participants needed to recruit per baby born to trial staff during AVERT, a large international trial on acute stroke, and to describe trial management consequences. DESIGN: Retrospective observational analysis. SETTING: 56 acute stroke hospitals in eight countries. PARTICIPANTS: 1074 trial physiotherapists, nurses, and other clinicians. OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of babies born during trial recruitment per trial participant recruited. RESULTS: With 198 site recruitment years and 2104 patients recruited during AVERT, 120 babies were born to trial staff. Births led to an estimated 10% loss in time to achieve recruitment. Parental leave was linked to six trial site closures. The number of participants needed to recruit per baby born was 17.5 (95% confidence interval 14.7 to 21.0); additional trial costs associated with each birth were estimated at 5736 Australian dollars on average. CONCLUSION: The staff absences registered in AVERT owing to parental leave led to delayed trial recruitment and increased costs, and should be considered by trial investigators when planning research and estimating budgets. However, the celebration of new life became a highlight of the annual AVERT collaborators' meetings and helped maintain a cohesive collaborative group. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry no 12606000185561. DISCLAIMER: Participation in a rehabilitation trial does not guarantee successful reproductive activity.
Male-to-male sex among men who inject drugs in Delhi, India: Overlapping HIV risk behaviours
BACKGROUND: HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) is a major public health challenge in India. This paper examines PWID in Delhi who also have male-to-male sex with a focus on overlapping HIV risk behaviours and the psychosocial correlates of a history of male-to-male anal sex. METHODS: We analysed data collected in April-May of 2012 from a community-based sample of 420 male PWID in Delhi obtained using time location sampling. RESULTS: One third (37%) of the men reported a history of anal sex with men, among whom just 16% used a condom at last anal sex. Almost all (93%) participants who had a history of anal sex with men also had sex with women. Chi-square tests revealed that a history of anal sex with men was associated with a higher number of female sexual partners and sharing of needles and syringes. Additionally, unprotected sex at last sex with a male partner was significantly associated with unprotected sex at last sex with regular and paid female partners. Multivariate binary logistic regression revealed that the psychosocial correlates of a history of anal sex with other men were: being aged 18-24 (OR = 2.4, p = 0.014), illiteracy (OR = 1.9, p = 0.033), having never been married (OR = 2.6, p = 0.007), a main source of income of crime/begging (OR = 3.1, p = 0.019), a duration of injecting drug use greater than 20 years (OR = 3.4, p = 0.035) and suicidal ideation (OR = 1.7, p = 0.048). CONCLUSION: Male-to-male sex was associated with psychosocial vulnerability, including a longer history of injecting drug use, suicidal ideation and socio-economic disadvantage. Given the extent of overlapping HIV risk behaviours, HIV programs for PWID would benefit from a strong focus on prevention of sexual HIV transmission, especially among male injectors who also have sex with other men.
Assisting Australians with mental health problems and financial difficulties: a Delphi study to develop guidelines for financial counsellors, financial institution staff, mental health professionals and carers
BACKGROUND: There is a strong association between mental health problems and financial difficulties. Therefore, people who work with those who have financial difficulties (financial counsellors and financial institution staff) need to have knowledge and helping skills relevant to mental health problems. Conversely, people who support those with mental health problems (mental health professionals and carers) may need to have knowledge and helping skills relevant to financial difficulties. The Delphi expert consensus method was used to develop guidelines for people who work with or support those with mental health problems and financial difficulties. METHODS: A systematic review of websites, books and journal articles was conducted to develop a questionnaire containing items about the knowledge, skills and actions relevant to working with or supporting someone with mental health problems and financial difficulties. These items were rated over three rounds by five Australian expert panels comprising of financial counsellors (n = 33), financial institution staff (n = 54), mental health professionals (n = 31), consumers (n = 20) and carers (n = 24). RESULTS: A total of 897 items were rated, with 462 items endorsed by at least 80 % of members of each of the expert panels. These endorsed statements were used to develop a set of guidelines for financial counsellors, financial institution staff, mental health professionals and carers about how to assist someone with mental health problems and financial difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: A diverse group of expert panel members were able to reach substantial consensus on the knowledge, skills and actions needed to work with and support people with mental health problems and financial difficulties. These guidelines can be used to inform policy and practice in the financial and mental health sectors.
Prospective validation of a predictive model that identifies homeless people at risk of re-presentation to the emergency department.
(Elsevier BV, 2012-02)
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively evaluate the accuracy of a predictive model to identify homeless people at risk of representation to an emergency department. METHODS: A prospective cohort analysis utilised one month of data from a Principal Referral Hospital in Melbourne, Australia. All visits involving people classified as homeless were included, excluding those who died. Homelessness was defined as living on the streets, in crisis accommodation, in boarding houses or residing in unstable housing. Rates of re-presentation, defined as the total number of visits to the same emergency department within 28 days of discharge from hospital, were measured. Performance of the risk screening tool was assessed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and likelihood ratios. RESULTS: Over the study period (April 1, 2009 to April 30, 2009), 3298 presentations from 2888 individuals were recorded. The homeless population accounted for 10% (n=327) of all visits and 7% (n=211) of all patients. A total of 90 (43%) homeless people re-presented to the emergency department. The predictive model included nine variables and achieved 98% (CI, 0.92-0.99) sensitivity and 66% (CI, 0.57-0.74) specificity. The positive predictive value was 68% and the negative predictive value was 98%. The positive likelihood ratio 2.9 (CI, 2.2-3.7) and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.03 (CI, 0.01-0.13). CONCLUSION: The high emergency department re-presentation rate for people who were homeless identifies unresolved psychosocial health needs. The emergency department remains a vital access point for homeless people, particularly after hours. The risk screening tool is key to identify medical and social aspects of a homeless patient's presentation to assist early identification and referral.