Melbourne School of Health Sciences Collected Works - Research Publications
Now showing items 1-12 of 261
Measuring universal health coverage based on an index of effective coverage of health services in 204 countries and territories, 1990-2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019
(ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2020-10-17)
BACKGROUND: Achieving universal health coverage (UHC) involves all people receiving the health services they need, of high quality, without experiencing financial hardship. Making progress towards UHC is a policy priority for both countries and global institutions, as highlighted by the agenda of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and WHO's Thirteenth General Programme of Work (GPW13). Measuring effective coverage at the health-system level is important for understanding whether health services are aligned with countries' health profiles and are of sufficient quality to produce health gains for populations of all ages. METHODS: Based on the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019, we assessed UHC effective coverage for 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019. Drawing from a measurement framework developed through WHO's GPW13 consultation, we mapped 23 effective coverage indicators to a matrix representing health service types (eg, promotion, prevention, and treatment) and five population-age groups spanning from reproductive and newborn to older adults (≥65 years). Effective coverage indicators were based on intervention coverage or outcome-based measures such as mortality-to-incidence ratios to approximate access to quality care; outcome-based measures were transformed to values on a scale of 0-100 based on the 2·5th and 97·5th percentile of location-year values. We constructed the UHC effective coverage index by weighting each effective coverage indicator relative to its associated potential health gains, as measured by disability-adjusted life-years for each location-year and population-age group. For three tests of validity (content, known-groups, and convergent), UHC effective coverage index performance was generally better than that of other UHC service coverage indices from WHO (ie, the current metric for SDG indicator 3.8.1 on UHC service coverage), the World Bank, and GBD 2017. We quantified frontiers of UHC effective coverage performance on the basis of pooled health spending per capita, representing UHC effective coverage index levels achieved in 2019 relative to country-level government health spending, prepaid private expenditures, and development assistance for health. To assess current trajectories towards the GPW13 UHC billion target-1 billion more people benefiting from UHC by 2023-we estimated additional population equivalents with UHC effective coverage from 2018 to 2023. FINDINGS: Globally, performance on the UHC effective coverage index improved from 45·8 (95% uncertainty interval 44·2-47·5) in 1990 to 60·3 (58·7-61·9) in 2019, yet country-level UHC effective coverage in 2019 still spanned from 95 or higher in Japan and Iceland to lower than 25 in Somalia and the Central African Republic. Since 2010, sub-Saharan Africa showed accelerated gains on the UHC effective coverage index (at an average increase of 2·6% [1·9-3·3] per year up to 2019); by contrast, most other GBD super-regions had slowed rates of progress in 2010-2019 relative to 1990-2010. Many countries showed lagging performance on effective coverage indicators for non-communicable diseases relative to those for communicable diseases and maternal and child health, despite non-communicable diseases accounting for a greater proportion of potential health gains in 2019, suggesting that many health systems are not keeping pace with the rising non-communicable disease burden and associated population health needs. In 2019, the UHC effective coverage index was associated with pooled health spending per capita (r=0·79), although countries across the development spectrum had much lower UHC effective coverage than is potentially achievable relative to their health spending. Under maximum efficiency of translating health spending into UHC effective coverage performance, countries would need to reach $1398 pooled health spending per capita (US$ adjusted for purchasing power parity) in order to achieve 80 on the UHC effective coverage index. From 2018 to 2023, an estimated 388·9 million (358·6-421·3) more population equivalents would have UHC effective coverage, falling well short of the GPW13 target of 1 billion more people benefiting from UHC during this time. Current projections point to an estimated 3·1 billion (3·0-3·2) population equivalents still lacking UHC effective coverage in 2023, with nearly a third (968·1 million [903·5-1040·3]) residing in south Asia. INTERPRETATION: The present study demonstrates the utility of measuring effective coverage and its role in supporting improved health outcomes for all people-the ultimate goal of UHC and its achievement. Global ambitions to accelerate progress on UHC service coverage are increasingly unlikely unless concerted action on non-communicable diseases occurs and countries can better translate health spending into improved performance. Focusing on effective coverage and accounting for the world's evolving health needs lays the groundwork for better understanding how close-or how far-all populations are in benefiting from UHC. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Home-based rehabilitation in inoperable non-small cell lung cancer-the patient experience
PURPOSE: Exercise is important in lung cancer, yet most people do not meet the physical activity guidelines. The aim of this study was to characterise the views and experiences of participants with inoperable lung cancer who completed a home-based rehabilitation program. METHODS: Ninety-two participants were recruited (45 intervention group [IG], 47 usual care). Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants randomised to the IG of a trial of home-based exercise, behaviour change and symptom management. Data were independently coded by two researchers, cross-checked and analysed using content analysis with a summary of arising themes. RESULTS: Of the IG (25/45), 55% were interviewed: mean (SD) age 67 (13) years; male 52%; disease stage n (%) III = 9 (36), IV = 11 (44); radical treatment intent n (%) 13 (52). The majority of participants reported program benefits, both in the physical domain (reduced sedentary time and improved strength, fitness and function) and the mental domain (motivation to keep healthy, preventing boredom). Support to self-manage symptoms was well received and many participants reported increased confidence in managing their symptoms. Exercise enablers included having expert health professional support; motivation to be stronger and better prepared for future challenges; and having an achievable and familiar program that was monitored. Treatment side-effects, pain from comorbidities and the weather were exercise barriers. For the majority of participants the use of a Fitbit™ activity tracker, text message exercise reminders and an exercise diary helped to promote adherence. CONCLUSIONS: This home-based rehabilitation program was acceptable to most participants with multiple benefits reported including improved fitness, motivation and ability to manage symptoms.
A Blue-Enriched, Increased Intensity Light Intervention to Improve Alertness and Performance in Rotating Night Shift Workers in an Operational Setting
(DOVE MEDICAL PRESS LTD, 2021-01-01)
Purpose: This study examined the efficacy of a lighting intervention that increased both light intensity and short-wavelength (blue) light content to improve alertness, performance and mood in night shift workers in a chemical plant. Patients and Methods: During rostered night shifts, 28 workers (46.0±10.8 years; 27 male) were exposed to two light conditions each for two consecutive nights (~19:00-07:00 h) in a counterbalanced repeated measures design: traditional-spectrum lighting set at pre-study levels (43 lux, 4000 K) versus higher intensity, blue-enriched lighting (106 lux, 17,000 K), equating to a 4.5-fold increase in melanopic illuminance (24 to 108 melanopic illuminance). Participants completed the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, subjective mood ratings, and the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) every 2-4 hours during the night shift. Results: A significant main effect of time indicated KSS, PVT mean reaction time, number of PVT lapses (reaction times > 500 ms) and subjective tension, misery and depression worsened over the course of the night shift (p<0.05). Percentage changes in KSS (p<0.05, partial η2=0.14) and PVT mean reaction time (p<0.05, partial η2=0.19) and lapses (p<0.05, partial η2=0.17) in the middle and end of night shift, expressed relative to start of shift, were significantly improved during the lighting intervention compared to the traditional lighting condition. Self-reported mood did not significantly differ between conditions (p>0.05). Conclusion: Our findings, showing improvements in alertness and performance with exposure to blue-enriched, increased intensity light, provide support for light to be used as a countermeasure for impaired alertness in night shift work settings.
A PERIOD3 variable number tandem repeat polymorphism modulates melatonin treatment response in delayed sleep-wake phase disorder
We examined whether a polymorphism of the PERIOD3 gene (PER3; rs57875989) modulated the sleep-promoting effects of melatonin in Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (DSWPD). One hundred and four individuals (53 males; 29.4 ±10.0 years) with DSWPD and a delayed dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) collected buccal swabs for genotyping (PER34/4 n = 43; PER3 5 allele [heterozygous and homozygous] n = 60). Participants were randomised to placebo or 0.5 mg melatonin taken 1 hour before desired bedtime (or ~1.45 hours before DLMO), with sleep attempted at desired bedtime (4 weeks; 5-7 nights/week). We assessed sleep (diary and actigraphy), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS: Sleep Disturbance, Sleep-Related Impairment), Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and Patient- and Clinician-Global Improvement (PGI-C, CGI-C). Melatonin treatment response on actigraphic sleep onset time did not differ between genotypes. For PER34/4 carriers, self-reported sleep onset time was advanced by a larger amount and sleep onset latency (SOL) was shorter in melatonin-treated patients compared to those receiving placebo (P = .008), while actigraphic sleep efficiency in the first third of the sleep episode (SE T1) did not differ. For PER3 5 carriers, actigraphic SOL and SE T1 showed a larger improvement with melatonin (P < .001). Melatonin improved ISI (P = .005), PROMIS sleep disturbance (P < .001) and sleep-related impairment (P = .017), SDS (P = .019), PGI-C (P = .028) and CGI-C (P = .016) in PER34/4 individuals only. Melatonin did not advance circadian phase. Overall, PER34/4 DSWPD patients have a greater response to melatonin treatment. PER3 genotyping may therefore improve DSWPD patient outcomes.
Health Professional Workforce Education in the Asia Pacific.
(PAGEPress Publications, 2016-04-26)
OBJECTIVE: To design and implement an international and interprofessional Global Learning Partnership Model, which involves shared learning between academics and students from Universitas 21 network with other universities with United Nations Millennium Development Goal needs. DESIGN: Two literature reviews were conducted to inform ethical aspects and curriculum design of the GLP model. Feedback from conference presentations and consultation with experts in education and public health has been incorporated to inform the current iteration of the GLP model. INTERVENTION: The pilot group of 25 students from U21 universities and Kathmandu University, representing six health disciplines will meet in Nepal in April 2016 for a shared learning experience, including a one week university based workshop and three week community based experience. OUTCOME MEASURES: A multi-phase, mixed method design was selected for the evaluation of the GLP model, utilising a combination of focus groups and questionnaires to evaluate the efficacy of the placement through student experience and learning outcomes in cultural competency, UN SDG knowledge, community engagement and health promotion skills. RESULTS: The literature review demonstrated that cultural awareness and cultural knowledge were improved through participation in cultural immersion programs that incorporated preparatory workshops and clinical experiences. Data will be gathered in April 2006 and the results of the evaluation will be published in the future. CONCLUSIONS: The GLP model proposes a project around the fundamental concept of engagement and sharing between students and academics across universities and cultural contexts to build capacity through education, while capitalising on strengths of existing global health placements. Further the inclusion of host-country students and academics in this learning exchange will promote the establishment of an international and interprofessional network for ongoing health promotion. Significance for public healthThe Global Learning Partnership model aims to contribute to the capacity building of a health workforce that is capable of working effectively in cross cultural and interprofessional health care teams. A shared public health focused global placement has the potential to catalyse collaborative relationships between educational institutions in the Asia Pacific region.
Patient education improves pain and function in people with knee osteoarthritis with better effects when combined with exercise therapy: a systematic review
(AUSTRALIAN PHYSIOTHERAPY ASSOC, 2021-07-01)
QUESTION: Is patient education effective as a standalone intervention or combined with other interventions for people with knee osteoarthritis? DESIGN: Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. MEDLINE, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL and Web of Science were searched from inception to April 2020. The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used for included studies, and Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) was used to interpret certainty of results. PARTICIPANTS: People with knee osteoarthritis. INTERVENTION: Any patient education intervention compared with any non-pharmacological comparator. OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcomes were self-reported pain and function. RESULTS: Twenty-nine trials involving 4,107 participants were included, informing low to very-low certainty evidence. Nineteen of 28 (68%) pooled comparisons were not statistically significant. Patient education was superior to usual care for pain (SMD -0.35, 95% CI -0.56 to -0.14) and function in the short term (-0.31, 95% CI -0.62 to 0.00), but inferior to exercise therapy for pain in the short term (0.77, 95% CI 0.07 to 1.47). Combining patient education with exercise therapy produced superior outcomes compared with patient education alone for pain in the short term (0.44, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.69) and function in the short (0.81, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.08) and medium term (0.39, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.62). When using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index for these comparisons, clinically important differences indicated that patient education was inferior to exercise therapy for pain in the short term (MD 1.56, 95% CI 0.14 to 2.98) and the combination of patient education and exercise therapy for function in the short term (8.94, 95% CI 6.05 to 11.82). CONCLUSION: Although patient education produced statistically superior short-term pain and function outcomes compared with usual care, differences were small and may not be clinically important. Patient education should not be provided as a standalone treatment and should be combined with exercise therapy to provide statistically superior and clinically important short-term improvements in function compared with education alone. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42019122004.
Feedback GAP: study protocol for a cluster-randomized trial of goal setting and action plans to increase the effectiveness of audit and feedback interventions in primary care
BACKGROUND: Audit and feedback to physicians is commonly used alone or as part of multifaceted interventions. While it can play an important role in quality improvement, the optimal design of audit and feedback is unknown. This study explores how feedback can be improved to increase acceptability and usability in primary care. The trial seeks to determine whether a theory-informed worksheet appended to feedback reports can help family physicians improve quality of care for their patients with diabetes and/or ischemic heart disease. METHODS: Two-arm cluster trial was conducted with participating primary care practices allocated using minimization to simple feedback or enhanced feedback group. The simple feedback group receives performance feedback reports every six months for two years regarding the proportion of their patients with diabetes and/or ischemic heart disease who are meeting quality targets. The enhanced feedback group receives these same reports as well as a theory-informed worksheet designed to facilitate goal setting and action plan development in response to the feedback reports. Participants are family physicians from across Ontario who use electronic medical records; data for rostered patients are used to produce the feedback reports and for analysis. OUTCOMES: The primary disease outcomes are the blood pressure (BP), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) levels. The primary process measure is a composite score indicating the number of recommended activities (e.g., tests and prescriptions) conducted by the family physicians for their patients with diabetes and/or ischemic heart disease within the appropriate timeframe. Secondary outcomes are the proportion of patients whose results meet targets for glucose, LDL, and BP as well as the percent of patients receiving relevant prescriptions. A qualitative process evaluation using semi-structured interviews will explore perceived barriers to behaviour change in response to feedback reports and preferences with regard to feedback design. ANALYSIS: Intention-to-treat approach will be used to analyze the trial. Analysis will be performed on patient-level variables using generalized estimating equation models to adjust for covariates and account for the clustered nature of the data. The trial is powered to show small, but clinically important differences of 7 mmHG in systolic BP and 0.32 mmol/L in LDL. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00996645.
Specifying active components of educational interventions to promote adherence to treatment in glaucoma patients: application of a taxonomy of behavior change techniques
(DOVE MEDICAL PRESS LTD, 2015-01-01)
PURPOSE: In response to recent calls for clearer specification of behavior change interventions, the purpose of this study was to apply a system of taxonomy for behavior change techniques (BCTs) to two educational interventions to improve adherence to glaucoma eye drops. Clarification of constituent BCTs will promote easy and reliable application of the interventions in clinical settings and research. METHODS: A published taxonomy of BCTs was used to code two interventions (group and individual) to increase adherence to eye drops. Intervention materials were coded by assigning a BCT label to each text unit. We noted the frequency with which each BCT occurred, compared the interventions in terms of the BCTs that were delivered, and identified whether the taxonomy was sufficient to describe the intervention components. RESULTS: The individual intervention consisted of 94 text units. Fifty-seven were identified as targeting behavior change and coded using 18 BCTs, many coded more than once. In the group intervention, 165 units of text were identified, and 125 were coded using 22 BCTs. The most frequently coded BCT was "provide information about behavior-health link" in the group intervention and "prompt barrier identification" in the individual intervention. The interventions included similar BCTs. All text units targeting behavior change were codable into BCTs. CONCLUSION: The similarity of the two interventions may have implications for the cost-effectiveness of the interventions. The taxonomy was found sufficient to describe both interventions. This level of specification can be used to ensure that precisely the same intervention that has been pilot tested is reproducible in the clinical setting and in any further research.
'It's a can of worms': understanding primary care practitioners' behaviours in relation to HPV using the theoretical domains framework
BACKGROUND: The relationship between infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer is transforming cervical cancer prevention. HPV tests and vaccinations have recently become available. In Ireland, as elsewhere, primary care practitioners play a key role in prevention. ATHENS (A Trial of HPV Education and Support) aims to develop a theory-based intervention to support primary care practitioners in their HPV-related practice. This study, the first step in the intervention development process, aimed to: identify HPV-related clinical behaviours that the intervention will target; clarify general practitioners' (GPs') and practice nurses' roles and responsibilities; and determine factors that potentially influence clinical behaviour. A secondary objective was to informally assess the utility of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) in understanding clinical behaviours in an area with an evolving evidence-base. METHODS: In-depth semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with GPs and practice nurses. The topic guide, which contained open questions and HPV-related clinical scenarios, was developed through literature review and clinical experience. Interview transcripts were content-analysed using the TDF as the coding framework. RESULTS: 19 GPs and 14 practice nurses were interviewed. The major HPV-related clinical behaviours were: initiating a discussion about HPV infection with female patients; offering/recommending HPV vaccination to appropriate patients; and answering patients' questions about HPV testing. While the responsibility for taking smears was considered a female role, both male and female practitioners dealt with HPV-related issues. All 12 theoretical domains arose in relation to HPV infection; the domains judged to be most important were: knowledge, emotion, social influences, beliefs about capabilities and beliefs about consequences. Eleven domains emerged in relation to HPV vaccination, with beliefs about consequences, social influences, knowledge and environmental context and resources judged to be the most important. Nine domains were relevant to HPV testing, with knowledge and beliefs about capabilities judged to be the most important. CONCLUSIONS: The findings confirm the need for an intervention to support primary care practitioners around HPV and suggest it should target a range of theoretical domains. The TDF proved valuable in analysing qualitative data collected using a topic guide not specifically designed to capture TDF domains and understanding clinical behaviours in an area with an evolving evidence-base.
Barriers and enablers to diabetic retinopathy screening attendance: Protocol for a systematic review
BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy is a serious complication of diabetes which, if left untreated, can result in blindness. Population screening among people with diabetes has been shown to be clinically effective; however, suboptimal attendance with wide demographic disparities has been reported. To develop quality improvement interventions to maximise attendance, it is important to understand the theoretical determinants (i.e. barriers and enablers) of screening behaviour. The aim of this systematic review is to identify and synthesise the modifiable barriers and enablers associated with diabetic retinopathy screening attendance. METHODS/DESIGN: Primary and secondary studies will be included if they report perceived barriers/enablers of diabetic retinopathy screening attendance, from the perspectives of people with diabetes and healthcare providers. There will be no restrictions on study design. Studies will be identified from published and grey literature through multiple sources. Bibliographic databases will be searched using synonyms in four search domains: diabetic retinopathy; screening; barriers/enablers; and theoretical constructs relating to behaviour. Search engines and established databases of grey literature will be searched to identify additional relevant studies. Extracted data will include: participant quotations from qualitative studies, statistical analyses from questionnaire and survey studies, and interpretive descriptions and summaries of results from reports. All extracted data will be coded into domains from the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) and (for organisational level data) the Consolidated Framework of Implementation Research (CFIR); with domains representing theoretical barriers/enablers proposed to mediate behaviour change. The potential role of each domain in influencing retinopathy screening attendance will be investigated through thematic analysis of the TDF/ CFIR coding. Domain importance will be identified using pre-specified criteria: "frequency" and "expressed importance". Variations in perceived barriers and enablers between demographic groups (e.g., socio-economic, ethnic) will be explored. DISCUSSION: This review will identify important barriers and enablers likely to influence attendance for diabetic retinopathy screening. The results will be used to assess the extent to which existing interventions targeting attendance address the theoretical determinants of attendance behaviour. Findings will inform recommendations for future intervention design. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42016032990.
Developing the content of two behavioural interventions: Using theory-based interventions to promote GP management of upper respiratory tract infection without prescribing antibiotics #1
(BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, 2008-01-14)
UNLABELLED: Evidence shows that antibiotics have limited effectiveness in the management of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) yet GPs continue to prescribe antibiotics. Implementation research does not currently provide a strong evidence base to guide the choice of interventions to promote the uptake of such evidence-based practice by health professionals. While systematic reviews demonstrate that interventions to change clinical practice can be effective, heterogeneity between studies hinders generalisation to routine practice. Psychological models of behaviour change that have been used successfully to predict variation in behaviour in the general population can also predict the clinical behaviour of healthcare professionals. The purpose of this study was to design two theoretically-based interventions to promote the management of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) without prescribing antibiotics. METHOD: Interventions were developed using a systematic, empirically informed approach in which we: selected theoretical frameworks; identified modifiable behavioural antecedents that predicted GPs intended and actual management of URTI; mapped these target antecedents on to evidence-based behaviour change techniques; and operationalised intervention components in a format suitable for delivery by postal questionnaire. RESULTS: We identified two psychological constructs that predicted GP management of URTI: "Self-efficacy," representing belief in one's capabilities, and "Anticipated consequences," representing beliefs about the consequences of one's actions. Behavioural techniques known to be effective in changing these beliefs were used in the design of two paper-based, interactive interventions. Intervention 1 targeted self-efficacy and required GPs to consider progressively more difficult situations in a "graded task" and to develop an "action plan" of what to do when next presented with one of these situations. Intervention 2 targeted anticipated consequences and required GPs to respond to a "persuasive communication" containing a series of pictures representing the consequences of managing URTI with and without antibiotics. CONCLUSION: It is feasible to systematically develop theoretically-based interventions to change professional practice. Two interventions were designed that differentially target generalisable constructs predictive of GP management of URTI. Our detailed and scientific rationale for the choice and design of our interventions will provide a basis for understanding any effects identified in their evaluation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00376142.