The role of placental heparan sulphate proteoglycans in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia
AffiliationObstetrics and Gynaecology
Medicine (Northwest Academic Centre)
Document TypePhD thesis
Access StatusThis item is currently not available from this repository
© 2015 Dr. Tilini Nisansala Gunatillake
Introduction: Uncomplicated pregnancies represent a hypercoaguable state. However, placental thrombosis is rare in these pregnancies which suggests that thrombin generation must be tightly regulated. In contrast, pregnancy disorders such as pre-eclampsia not only demonstrate an exaggerated increase in procoagulant activity which may contribute to the thrombotic lesions observed in the uteroplacental circulation of these pregnancies, but there is evidence of substantial cell growth, differentiation and angiogenic functional defects. Proteoglycans are abundantly expressed within the placenta compared to other human tissues. Particularly of interest are heparan sulphate proteoglycans which have important anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory and angiogenic properties. Hypothesis: Altered abundance, structure or function of placental heparan sulphate proteoglycans contributes to the development of pre-eclampsia by: increasing placental thrombin generation, interfering with cellular growth, differentiation, disrupting normal angiogenesis and altering growth factor interactions. Aims : 1) To determine the mRNA expression, protein abundance and cellular localisation of placental heparan sulphate proteoglycans from pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia and compare these to gestation matched controls. 2) To investigate the functional consequence of reduced HSPGs in placental cells 3) To determine the differences in the abundance and structure of heparan sulphate proteoglycans and heparan sulphate GAGs from placentae obtained from pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia and compare these to gestation matched controls. Methods: 1) The mRNA, protein abundance and cellular localisation of placental heparan sulphate proteoglycans was determined using real-time PCR, western immunoblotting and immunofluorescence, respectively. 2) To investigate the functions of reduced heparan sulphate proteoglycans, a cell culture model using short interference RNA was used. Cellular growth will be assessed using the xCELLigence system, thrombin generation using the calibrated automated thrombogram system and angiogenesis will be determined using a matrigel based assay. Cellular differentiation and apoptosis will be determined using real-time PCR. Growth factor signalling will be determined using a real-time PCR growth factor array. 3) To isolate proteoglycans from placenta, anion exchange chromatography will be utilised. Enzymatic digestion will be used to isolate the glycosaminoglycans, and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays will be undertaken to determine the abundance of PGs and GAGs. Results: The mRNA expression of heparan sulphate proteoglycans, Syndecan 1, Syndecan 2, Glypican 1 and Glypican 3 are significantly reduced in the placentae of women whose pregnancies are complicated by pre-eclampsia. A cell culture model was utilised to determine the functions of heparan sulphate proteoglycans in the placenta. Successful downregulation of heparan sulphate proteoglycans was achieved in the cell lines using short interference RNA treatment, and a number of functions were significantly altered as a result. The downregulation of Syndecan 1, Glypican 1 and Glypican 3 resulted in significant alterations in the downstream growth factor targets. Reduced Syndecan 2 expression resulted in a significant reduction in the thrombin generation potential of endothelial cells. Investigation into the abundance and structure of glycosaminoglycans within the placenta, demonstrated heparan sulphate glycosaminoglycans to be significantly reduced in pregnancies complicated with pre-eclampsia compared to gestation matched controls. Conclusion: The reduction in heparan sulphate proteoglycans expression observed in pregnancies complicated with pre-eclampsia may be responsible for the altered growth factor interaction commonly observed in preeclamptic pregnancies. This study has provided us with a greater understanding of the biological role of heparan sulphate proteoglycans within the human placenta and its potential implications in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia.
Keywordspre-eclampsia; proteoglycans; pregnancy
- Click on "Export Reference in RIS Format" and choose "open with... Endnote".
- Click on "Export Reference in RIS Format". Login to Refworks, go to References => Import References